Vol 2, No 2 (2021) 82–88

Fake: The Rise of Food Fraud in the Halal Sup­ply Chain

Adam Voak

The Cairns Insti­tute, James Cook Uni­ver­si­ty, Townsville, Australia.

Cor­re­spon­dence should be addressed to Adan Voak: adam.​voak@​jcu.​edu.​au

Cite this: Nusan­tara Halal J. 2021, Vol. 2 No.2 pp. 82–88 (Arti­cle) | Received 15 Sep­tem­ber 2021 | Revised 20 Novem­ber 2021 | Accept­ed 23 Decem­ber 2021 | Pub­lished 29 Decem­ber 2021 | http://​dx​.doi​.org/​1​0​.​1​7​9​7​7​/​u​m​0​6​0​.​2​0​2​1​v​2​p​0​8​2​-​088

Abstract

We live in increas­ing­ly chal­leng­ing eco­nom­ic times, and the con­comi­tant uncer­tain­ty asso­ci­at­ed with this state with­in the food indus­try has led to an emer­gence of unscrupu­lous sup­pli­ers and sup­ply chain actors com­mit­ting Halal food fraud. As Halal food sup­ply chains become increas­ing­ly com­plex and glob­al and as the sec­tor con­tin­ues to devel­op and grow, more sig­nif­i­cant oppor­tu­ni­ties arise for unprin­ci­pled prac­tice. Fur­ther, cater­ing to ris­ing con­sump­tion and the resul­tant increased demand for Halal prod­ucts and ser­vices means con­sumers in Halal sup­ply chains are par­tic­u­lar­ly vul­ner­a­ble to fraud, adul­ter­ation and unwit­ting con­t­a­m­i­na­tion as glob­al demand out­strips sup­ply. Cer­ti­fi­ca­tion and its asso­ci­at­ed labelling of Halal food prod­ucts alone will no longer engen­der com­plete con­sumer con­fi­dence, par­tic­u­lar­ly as con­sumers become bet­ter acquaint­ed with the ris­ing oppor­tu­ni­ties for food fraud, false adver­tis­ing, and mis­lead­ing con­duct. This report is based on rec­og­niz­ing the reli­gious impor­tance of Halal food to Mus­lims and how food integri­ty is piv­otal in the dai­ly obser­vance of Islam­ic mores. It exam­ines how vul­ner­a­bil­i­ties in glob­al sup­ply chains can arise and be exploit­ed to inten­tion­al­ly deceive and unknow­ing­ly con­t­a­m­i­nate food prod­ucts con­sumed by devot­ed Mus­lims. A vital indus­try issue of con­cern to this dis­cus­sion is the increas­ing impor­tance of com­pli­ance, trans­paren­cy, and trace­abil­i­ty, com­bined with oth­er risk mit­i­ga­tion approach­es need­ed with­in Halal food sup­ply chains to ensure prod­uct prove­nance. This review also exam­ines the poten­tial human capa­bil­i­ty devel­op­ment inter­ven­tions required to strength­en fur­ther sup­ply chain actors’ com­pe­tence and the con­sumer aware­ness need­ed to pro­vide trust and con­fi­dence in the Halal food eco-system.

Key­words: Food fraud, Halal food, Halal food Sup­ply Chain, Human capa­bil­i­ty development.

Introduction

The food sup­ply chain indus­try can­not under­es­ti­mate the reli­gious sig­nif­i­cance and impor­tance of con­trolled food con­sump­tion for the Mus­lim com­mu­ni­ty and needs to appre­ci­ate the dev­as­tat­ing impacts that food fraud has on these con­sumers. Indeed, for every Mus­lim, com­mu­ni­ty con­fi­dence in the food chain must start with appro­pri­ate farm man­age­ment pro­ce­dures, then under­stand secure and respect­ful han­dling strate­gies dur­ing phys­i­cal move­ment, and final­ly hav­ing faith in con­trolled dis­tri­b­u­tion out­lets. Put sim­ply, com­mu­ni­ty con­fi­dence must extend from farm to fork and every­where in between [1]. This implies that to main­tain the integri­ty of Halal food prod­ucts through­out the chain, they must be rig­or­ous­ly secure in every way. All steps in their han­dling must be adhered to and respect­ed by every per­son who forms part of the chain to avoid con­t­a­m­i­na­tion with Haram items or ‘najs’ [2].

There­fore, it is essen­tial that the indus­try insti­tutes and then assures con­tin­u­al spe­cif­ic focus on food fraud pre­ven­tion, thus pre­clud­ing recur­rent fraud vul­ner­a­bil­i­ty through­out the food sup­ply chain [3]. This is where accu­rate and reli­able food trace­abil­i­ty becomes crit­i­cal. Food trace­abil­i­ty allows com­pa­nies, stake­hold­ers, and oth­er sup­ply chain actors to trace the ori­gins and han­dling his­to­ry of the prod­ucts being sold to min­i­mize the risks of inad­ver­tent con­sump­tion of non-Halal food by iso­lat­ing affect­ed foods quick­ly. It is also imper­a­tive that greater indus­try aware­ness is placed on the reli­gious sig­nif­i­cance of pre­serv­ing Halal prod­ucts, allow­ing the intro­duc­tion of bet­ter con­trol mea­sures and the devel­op­ment of cul­tur­al com­pe­tence along and with­in glob­al sup­ply chains. As demand for Halal food from sup­pli­ers, retail­ers, and restau­rants grows expo­nen­tial­ly, a con­stant reassess­ment with­in sup­ply chains must occur to ensure com­mu­ni­ty con­fi­dence in Halal stan­dards from farm to fork.

Halal Food and its Importance to the Muslim Community

‘Halal’ in the Ara­bic lan­guage encap­su­lates an Islam­ic belief rep­re­sent­ing things and actions per­mis­si­ble under Sharia law [2]. An equal­ly impor­tant term in Halal is ‘Thoyy­ib’, a word that also comes from the Ara­bic lan­guage, which means ‘good and whole­some’ [4]. Based on these reli­gious foun­da­tions, the term Halal is used as an indi­ca­tion of qual­i­ty, con­not­ing con­sid­er­able val­ue, ben­e­fits, and pub­lic reli­gious obser­vance to Islam­ic con­sumers and pro­duc­ers [5]. Con­sum­ing Halal food forms a fun­da­men­tal com­po­nent of the Islam­ic faith. Haram is, con­verse­ly, the dia­met­ric of Halal, describ­ing pro­hib­it­ed or unlaw­ful prac­tices [6]. Haram and Halal are uni­ver­sal­ly accept­ed duti­ful terms that apply to all facets of a devout Mus­lim’s life. In this regard, Islam is not only a reli­gious obser­va­tion, but it also encom­pass­es the duti­ful liv­ing out of a bal­anced way of life.

Food is a rit­u­al­ly fun­da­men­tal com­po­nent of Mus­lims’ dai­ly life. For this very rea­son, Halal food laws, com­pli­ance, and reg­u­la­tion clear­ly car­ry a spe­cial sig­nif­i­cance. Mus­lims do not exist to eat; in fact, eat­ing faith­ful­ly and obser­vant­ly is a reli­gious expres­sion to pre­serve sur­vival and main­tain good health. In Islam, eat­ing is con­sid­ered wor­ship­ful, like prayer, fast­ing, alms-giv­ing, and oth­er reli­gious activ­i­ties. It must be appre­ci­at­ed that Halal food reg­u­la­tions cov­er the com­plete range of oper­a­tions and activ­i­ties that occur from the farm to final con­sump­tion [7]. Thus, unde­sir­able prac­tices that con­sti­tute some fraud or mal­prac­tice along Halal food sup­ply chains are very con­cern­ing for Mus­lim con­sumers [7]. For Mus­lim con­sumers, one of the fac­tors influ­enc­ing food pur­chase deci­sions is reli­gious con­fi­dence in offered prod­ucts. Every Mus­lim is strict­ly oblig­ed to search for evi­dence of good han­dling prac­tices before con­sum­ing Halal prod­ucts [8].

Food Fraud

Fraud can be under­stood as offer­ing some­thing that is ‘not what it appears to be’ and is an action delib­er­ate­ly used to deceive peo­ple, espe­cial­ly for mon­e­tary reward. Many oppor­tu­ni­ties for fraud are avail­able through­out the Halal sup­ply chain and can mate­ri­al­ize in ingre­di­ents, raw mate­ri­als, food pack­ag­ing, and the final prod­uct. Such delib­er­ate and unscrupu­lous activ­i­ties for finan­cial gain or to cause harm mali­cious­ly or inten­tion­al­ly could include sub­sti­tut­ing or dilut­ing food ingre­di­ents, adul­ter­at­ing raw mate­ri­als, tam­per­ing, mis­la­bel­ing, or the mis­rep­re­sen­ta­tion of the mate­ri­als or final prod­ucts. Decep­tion can also extend to mis­rep­re­sent­ing some­thing through mis­brand­ing, coun­ter­feit­ing, or han­dling records inappropriately.

Essen­tial­ly, food fraud falls under two dis­tinct cat­e­gories: those of (i) tech­ni­cal and (ii) time and place oppor­tu­ni­ties [3]. With­in the tech­ni­cal sphere, the exis­tence of oppor­tu­ni­ties for adul­ter­ation or coun­ter­feit­ing of cer­tain types of prod­ucts and the gen­er­al avail­abil­i­ty of sit­u­a­tions allow­ing adul­ter­ation of mate­r­i­al in a par­tic­u­lar chain will increase the vul­ner­a­bil­i­ty to fraud. Adul­ter­ation includes ingre­di­ent sub­sti­tu­tion, dilu­tion, con­ceal­ment, arti­fi­cial enhance­ment, allowance of impu­ri­ties, use of unde­clared, unap­proved, or banned bio­cides, and authen­tic con­stituents’ removal [9]. Oppor­tu­ni­ties in time and place increase when poten­tial fraud­sters have legit­i­mate access to the loca­tion where fraud can be com­mit­ted [3]. This could be direct access to the food prod­uct or the abil­i­ty to inter­fere with pro­cess­ing lines [3]. In addi­tion, this area could include activ­i­ties such as rela­bel­ing an infe­ri­or prod­uct or tam­per­ing with prod­uct infor­ma­tion in the form of altered date codes, or refill­ing qual­i­ty prod­uct con­tain­ers with less­er qual­i­ty sub­sti­tutes [10].

Research has shown that the most com­mon types of food fraud range from sub­sti­tut­ing cheap­er less whole­some or healthy ingre­di­ents for those of high­er-cost reli­gious­ly com­pli­ant alter­na­tives, inten­tion­al mis­la­bel­ing, coun­ter­feit­ing, dilu­tion, and adul­ter­ation the addi­tion of unap­proved enhance­ments [11]. Oth­er fraud activ­i­ties include the diver­sion of unfit pet food meat into the human food chain, re-dat­ing out-​of-​date meat, and freez­ing and sub­sti­tu­tion of non-​Halal meat (Haram) for gen­uine Halal prod­ucts [11]. As a result of the known grow­ing nature and breadth of these fraud­u­lent inci­dents, there has been a resul­tant change in indus­try focus from the inves­ti­ga­tion of food fraud to risk mit­i­ga­tion and vul­ner­a­bil­i­ty reduc­tion strate­gies [3,12,13].

The Rise of Food Fraud in the Halal Supply Chain

In line with the Shari­ah jurispru­dence high­light­ed above, it can be con­clud­ed that Halal prod­ucts must com­ply with strict reli­gious bound­aries. For exam­ple, Halal food prod­ucts must not con­tain pork, or its deriv­a­tives nor be derived from car­cass­es and non-Sharia slaugh­tered farm ani­mals [14]. Fur­ther, they must nev­er be derived from pro­hib­it­ed ani­mals, blood prod­ucts or from meat part­ly cut off from a liv­ing ani­mal [14]. More broad­ly, Halal food must not be harm­ful to health, con­tain ele­ments of fraud, and nev­er con­tain intox­i­cat­ing sub­stances [14]. Giv­en these obser­vance guide­lines, the risk of con­t­a­m­i­na­tion in Halal food sup­ply chains is a sub­stan­tial con­cern for Mus­lim con­sumers [15].

The fake Halal meat car­tel scan­dal of 2020 was per­haps one of the most star­tling events per­tain­ing to Halal food fraud in more recent times. The scan­dal was first revealed to the pub­lic when a local Malaysian news­pa­per report­ed that a meat car­tel had been smug­gling non-Halal meat from coun­tries such as Chi­na, Brazil, Cana­da, and Ukraine [16]. The ini­tial report linked the smug­gled meat with poor qual­i­ty and even dis­eased kan­ga­roos and hors­es. It was report­ed that upon arrival in Malaysia, these meats were mixed with beef in the ware­hous­es before being labeled as Halal-cer­ti­fied beef [16].

These per­pe­tra­tors, par­tic­u­lar­ly in the Malaysian and Indone­sian meat indus­tries, used harm­ful and unsafe mate­ri­als in assem­bling fraud­u­lent meat prod­ucts such as for­ma­lin, fake meat, exot­ic meat, dyes, and garbage meat [14]. More recent­ly, it is becom­ing more com­mon for adul­ter­ants to be delib­er­ate­ly and decep­tive­ly added to pur­po­sive­ly increase vis­i­ble quan­ti­ties and reduce man­u­fac­tur­ing costs. Whilst will­ful debas­ing of food offered for sale through adul­ter­ation becomes more com­mon [1], it should also be rec­og­nized that non-Halal mate­ri­als may also be igno­rant­ly or acci­den­tal­ly intro­duced into the sub­stances because of poor han­dling and stor­age prac­tices, and the sup­ply chain indus­try must be vig­i­lant at all phas­es of food trans­porta­tion and dis­tri­b­u­tion. This is a human com­pe­tence issue, which will be dis­cussed lat­er in this paper.

Fraud­u­lent activ­i­ties have unfor­tu­nate­ly not been lim­it­ed to beef and asso­ci­at­ed beef prod­ucts. Recent­ly, a series of sur­veys were con­duct­ed around so-called Halal labeled chick­en prod­ucts, and they alarm­ing­ly revealed:

  • wide­spread prac­tice of Halal mislabeling.
  • delib­er­ate ‘pump­ing up’ of chick­en meat with water, where exam­ples have been seen that a ½ half of an over­all chick­en’s weight is added water.
  • regard­ing the unscrupu­lous prac­tice of ‘pump­ing-up’ chick­en meat with water, it was found that the adul­ter­ant con­tained pro­teins of porcine and bovine ori­gin, which were delib­er­ate as they aid­ed water reten­tion in the chick­en car­cass­es [17].

Mus­lims are for­bid­den to con­sume either pork or food adul­ter­at­ed with its deriv­a­tives. Alarm­ing­ly, in addi­tion, to the bovine pro­tein men­tioned pre­vi­ous­ly, it is also high­ly like­ly that they were a deriva­tion of ani­mals slaugh­tered con­trary to Islam­ic law. Fur­ther­more, it has been found that these addi­tives used in these chick­en prod­ucts were often not list­ed on labels [17].

Trade-in, ille­gal Haram meat, is, unfor­tu­nate­ly, big busi­ness. For exam­ple, in the Unit­ed King­dom (UK), it is now the third largest ille­gal­ly trad­ed food cat­e­go­ry, with a trad­ing vol­ume in the range of £1bn a year [18]. Indeed, the lack of coor­di­na­tion across and with­in bor­ders [18] is like­ly to give rise to greater oppor­tu­ni­ties to com­mit food fraud. Unfor­tu­nate­ly, it seems that in recent times, as demand ris­es and the mar­ket grows inter­na­tion­al­ly, irre­spon­si­ble par­ties have made Halal food a sig­nif­i­cant medi­um of crime [19]. There­fore, var­i­ous food crime issues have arisen, includ­ing food adul­ter­ation, food fraud, and food ter­ror­ism [19], which are all becom­ing more preva­lent, par­tic­u­lar­ly as glob­al sup­ply chains become more complex.

Combatting Halal Food Fraud

Com­bat­ting and reduc­ing food fraud with­in glob­al Halal sup­ply chains is a mul­ti-juris­dic­tion­al chal­lenge and needs more than intro­duc­ing cer­ti­fi­ca­tion and com­pli­ance audit­ing. It needs hon­est and trust­wor­thy sup­ply chain actors who are con­scious­ly pre­pared to pro­tect the integri­ty of the food eco-sys­tem and reg­u­la­tors and law­mak­ers who have the cul­tur­al com­pe­tence to ensure the legit­i­ma­cy of prod­ucts tran­sit­ing or leav­ing their juris­dic­tions. These prac­tices are clear­ly con­comi­tant with the pro­tec­tion of the bonafides of oth­er class­es of food prod­ucts, includ­ing veg­e­tar­i­an, gluten-free, non-aller­gen, organ­ic, or oth­er reli­gious­ly or cul­tur­al­ly sig­nif­i­cant food frame­works. Indeed, effec­tive com­pli­ance mea­sures need actors and stake­hold­ers who evi­dence the nec­es­sary com­pe­tence to dis­charge their duties in a cul­tur­al­ly appro­pri­ate and respect­ful way. Respect and trust are fun­da­men­tal to any com­plex sup­ply chain sys­tem since con­sumers rely implic­it­ly on the actions of oth­ers to ensure their per­son­al safe­ty, health, and well-being.

To bet­ter under­stand the crit­i­cal con­trol points and vul­ner­a­bil­i­ties in the sup­ply chain, prod­uct flows should be mapped. In this sit­u­a­tion, we need to under­stand the inter­con­nec­tions and inter­de­pen­den­cies with­in the food dis­tri­b­u­tion sys­tem and be aware of the oppor­tu­ni­ties for exploita­tion. Sup­ply chain map­ping can be used to give a more com­plete pic­ture of mate­r­i­al flow and the poten­tial risks present, includ­ing those of a socio-eco­nom­ic, behav­ioral, and geopo­lit­i­cal nature. Con­stant vig­i­lance is nec­es­sary, with prod­ucts being able to be trace­able from the ori­gin of food­stuff to the act of con­sump­tion. Mon­i­tor­ing strate­gies deployed in the food chain focus on ori­gins and label ver­i­fi­ca­tion, spec­i­fi­ca­tion man­age­ment, sup­pli­er audits, ana­lyt­i­cal test­ing at crit­i­cal con­trol points, and anti-coun­ter­feit and cross-con­t­a­m­i­na­tion warn­ing sys­tems, all of which con­tribute to the imple­men­ta­tion of trace­abil­i­ty sys­tems in Halal food pro­duc­tion [20].

How­ev­er, in Halal food sup­ply chains, there are many more ele­ments to con­sid­er ensur­ing com­pli­ance mea­sures to ensure Halal Tayy­iban prin­ci­ples are released. A more holis­tic, cul­tur­al­ly sen­si­tive Halal Tayy­iban lens would also include a more com­pre­hen­sive inves­ti­ga­tion along Halal sup­ply chains to include ‘sec­ond order’ details like resource con­ser­va­tion, ani­mal wel­fare, elim­i­na­tion of ani­mal cru­el­ty, slaugh­ter­ing prac­tices, the hous­ing of ani­mals and their safe trans­porta­tion [21]. Oth­er fac­tors that should be includ­ed in such com­pli­ance assess­ments would look close­ly at agri­cul­tur­al prac­tices, reduc­tions in the usage of fer­til­iz­ers and pes­ti­cides, and endeav­ors to elim­i­nate con­t­a­m­i­nants and pol­lu­tant agents [21]. Audit­ing of Halal sup­ply chains would also need a com­pre­hen­sive approach to the food prod­uct and flows to ensure safe­ty, trace­abil­i­ty, secu­ri­ty, and trans­paren­cy [21].

To tru­ly under­stand vul­ner­a­bil­i­ties in Halal sup­ply chains, con­trol plans should be deployed which have a strong sense of ‘think­ing like a crim­i­nal’. Com­pli­ance and trace­abil­i­ty efforts need to be effec­tive and effi­cient. One such approach is the deploy­ment of test­ing tech­nolo­gies that can aid in iden­ti­fy­ing food con­t­a­m­i­nants with the aim of ensur­ing the integri­ty of food prod­ucts and raw mate­ri­als [22] in a cost-effec­tive, fast, non-inva­sive man­ner. This could be, for exam­ple, by using hand-held near-infrared (NIR) devices [21]. Fur­ther, vul­ner­a­bil­i­ty assess­ments can be a valu­able tool to illu­mi­nate the exis­tence of three essen­tial ele­ments: those of crit­i­cal­i­ty, acces­si­bil­i­ty, and vul­ner­a­bil­i­ty [20], thus remov­ing the resul­tant food adul­ter­ation threats.

Halal Supply Chain Compliance – Building Human Capability

An oft-for­got­ten impor­tant com­po­nent of the sup­ply chain is the human ele­ment. While an array of tools, sys­tems, and tech­nolo­gies can be deployed in this area, there effec­tive­ness is resul­tant on the human dis­charge of skills, knowl­edge, and atti­tudes. The human com­po­nent of the Halal food sup­ply chain is a foun­da­tion­al com­po­nent of ensur­ing com­pli­ance, in not only meet­ing cer­ti­fi­ca­tion require­ments and reg­u­la­tions per­tain­ing to Halal, but also the estab­lish­ment of respect­ful stake­hold­er prac­tice need­ed to ensure con­sumer trust in the Halal food sys­tem [23]. This is need­ed to be car­ried out in the face of sig­nif­i­cant human capa­bil­i­ty devel­op­ment chal­lenges, which are unfor­tu­nate­ly still par­tic­u­lar­ly evi­dent in glob­al­ized and increas­ing­ly com­plex food sup­ply chains. Halal prod­uct prove­nance, as prod­ucts are trad­ed and trans­port­ed across regions [24], is of par­tic­u­lar con­cern, par­tic­u­lar­ly giv­en that not all juris­dic­tions have the nec­es­sary reg­u­la­to­ry food safe­ty frame­works, cor­rup­tion mon­i­tor­ing regimes, com­pli­ance checks, human tal­ent, and asso­ci­at­ed infra­struc­ture and cul­tur­al aware­ness to ensure com­plete prove­nance. Fur­ther, to achieve the resul­tant con­sumer trust, Halal prod­ucts, and ser­vices, key sup­ply chain actors and stake­hold­ers need to build com­pe­tent, atten­tive, and reli­gious­ly aware work­forces. Com­pe­tent and cul­tur­al aware sup­ply chain and logis­tics work­forces are also piv­otal in ensur­ing unwit­ting breach­es, such as inad­ver­tent cross-con­t­a­m­i­na­tion, do not occur.

Edu­cat­ing con­sumers is also a very nec­es­sary com­po­nent of ensur­ing the Halal sup­ply chain and prod­uct integri­ty. A recent study rec­om­mends that Islam­ic author­i­ties should seek to con­tin­u­ous­ly find ways to improve con­sumer aware­ness around pos­si­ble areas of Halal food fraud [7]. Many Mus­lim con­sumers are often under­stand­ably not well informed as to their con­sumer rights and the asso­ci­at­ed legal pro­tec­tions per­tain­ing to Halal prod­ucts and Halal cer­ti­fi­ca­tion pro­ce­dures [25], and thus must be edu­cat­ed along and through­out the sup­ply chain [24]. In this regard, ensur­ing that Mus­lim con­sumers pur­chas­ing food can accu­rate­ly iden­ti­fy an authen­tic Halal logo, for exam­ple, could assist in reduc­ing the pos­si­bil­i­ty of pur­chas­ing fraud­u­lent prod­ucts [8], since an indi­vid­u­al’s knowl­edge and aware­ness are impor­tant deter­min­ing fac­tors in build­ing their resul­tant per­cep­tion regard­ing Halal com­pli­ance [26].

Conclusions

This dis­cus­sion aims to raise sev­er­al key issues around the rapid growth of the Halal food sec­tor glob­al­ly. The rise of food fraud has meant that many Mus­lim con­sumers are becom­ing more aware of the impor­tance of food bonafides and the prove­nance of Halal food prod­ucts that they pur­chase. This explorato­ry paper high­lights the impor­tance of vig­i­lance and the need for sup­ply chain actors to become more cog­nizant of the sig­nif­i­cant impacts that food fraud has on Mus­lim con­sumers. Non-Mus­lim coun­tries and their work­forces who wish to par­tic­i­pate in the Halal food eco-sys­tem need to build their cul­tur­al com­pe­tence to ensure they are dis­charg­ing their respon­si­bil­i­ties respect­ful­ly. Build­ing human capa­bil­i­ty, both along the sup­ply chain and amongst Mus­lim con­sumers, is also essen­tial in iden­ti­fy­ing activ­i­ties of a fraud­u­lent nature. This devel­op­ment also needs to extend from mere­ly fraud­u­lent respons­es to ensur­ing that sup­ply chain actors do not inad­ver­tent­ly con­t­a­m­i­nate Halal food prod­ucts. Fur­ther, to reduce oppor­tu­ni­ties for food fraud, greater empha­sis is need­ed around map­ping sup­ply chain vul­ner­a­bil­i­ties, incor­po­rat­ing trace­abil­i­ty pro­to­cols, mit­i­gat­ing risk, cre­at­ing trans­paren­cy, and build­ing aware­ness around crit­i­cal con­trol points that could be exploit­ed by unscrupu­lous behaviors.

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© 2021 by the authors. This is an open access arti­cle dis­trib­uted under the Cre­ative Com­mons Attri­bu­tion License, which per­mits unre­strict­ed use, dis­tri­b­u­tion, and repro­duc­tion in any medi­um, pro­vid­ed the orig­i­nal work is prop­er­ly cited.

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