Employment Opportunities as Halal Entrepreneur for Halal Science Graduates: UNISSA as Model
Nurdeng Deuraseh, Siti Nora’aini Pg Sufredin
Halalan Thayyiban Research Centre, University Islam Sultan Sharif Ali, BE 1310, Brunei Darussalam.
Correspondence should be addressed to Nurdeng Deuraseh: firstname.lastname@example.org
Cite this: Nusantara Halal J. 2021, Vol. 2 No.2 pp. 63–81 (Article) | Received 28 September 2021 | Revised 29 November 2021 | Accepted 22 December 2021 | Published 29 December 2021 | https://dx.doi.org/10.17977/um060.2021v2p063-081
The high unemployment rate among graduates is not a new issue. This issue is of concern in many countries including Brunei Darussalam. Brunei’s Government could not accommodate all the unemployed graduates with governmental job, therefore, as a brilliant and creative graduates, they need to be independent and creative to create job opportunities. So, one of the measures to reduce this problem is by the introduction of Entrepreneurship. The concept of entrepreneurship is not something new in Islam as it can be observed from the history as a noble profession practiced by the Prophet Muhammad and His companions. However, in recent times, scholars of the Islamic economy have introduced a new term, “Halal entrepreneurship” or “Halalpreneurship” to define and differentiate entrepreneurs in the Halal industry from the conventional entrepreneurs. Brunei Darussalam is ideally positioned as a destination for doing business and investment. The aim of this paper is to understand the difference between entrepreneur and Halal entrepreneur. To what extend are there job opportunities for UNISSA Halal Science Graduates as Halal entrepreneur and to explore the importance of Halal entrepreneurship in the development of county and how can it help reduce youth unemployment in Brunei. This research used mainly a qualitative approach which draw from both primary and secondary data. The primary data and information were collected through interviews with local entrepreneurs in different sector with different type of entrepreneurship. The secondary data was collected from the books and articles. The findings of this research were mostly informants agreed that there is the difference between entrepreneur and Halal entrepreneur. The result shows that there are varieties of job opportunities as Halal entrepreneur for UNISSA Graduates of Halal Science such as being a Halal entrepreneur in food sector such as being a Halal food producer. Travel and tourism, cosmetic and agriculture sector also open for Halal science graduates to tap into. Opening modest Muslimah wear, services such as Muslim friendly spa also as an opportunity. Majority of the informants agreed that Halal entrepreneurship is important in the development of county, and it help reduce youth unemployment in Brunei.
Keywords: Entrepreneurship, Halal entrepreneur, Job opportunities, UNISSA Halal Science Graduates, Employment.
The establishment of Halalan Thayyiban Research Centre is an effort to uphold the command of His Majesty Sultan Haji Hassanal Bolkiah of Brunei Darussalam during the 6th Hafl Al-Takharruj (Convocation) Ceremony of Sultan Sharif Ali Islamic University on 20th Muharram 1438H corresponding to 22th October 2016M, at the International Convention Centre, Berakas, Brunei Darussalam, had given his speech as below:
“In fact, there is still a wide range of opportunity that needs to be explored by UNISSA. During this time, Halal industry has become one of the most rapidly developing fields which spreads globally. Has it not that the Halal aspect been demanded in the religion of Islam? The global market value is increasing, and it is estimated to be large. It increases by 16% of the total of world’s food industry and can reach up to 20% of the world’s commerce in the food products alone. Therefore, I fully support UNISSA’s plan to establish Centre of Excellence of Halal Research at UNISSA; as a catalyst to my wish to make Brunei Darussalam as the ‘global Halal hub’, wherein will aid in boosting the country’s economic growth.” (Pelita Brunei, 2016/25 Muharram 1438).
Halalan Thayyiban Research Centre has offered three types of programs such as bachelor, master, and Doctor of Philosophy in Halal Science. As reported from the center, stated that there was 58% of Halal science alumni that have not yet employed and another 42% of them are employed. This result showed that Halal Science Graduates also faced unemployment issue. Brunei’s Government could not accommodate all the unemployed graduates with governmental job, therefore, as a brilliant and creative graduates, they need to be independent and creative to create job opportunities. According to Deuraseh, Heradhyaksa, one of the measures to reduce this problem is by the introduction of Entrepreneurship . Islam encourages the Muslims to engage in the business activities. Regarding this, there are many hadith narrated on this subject, which is included: It was narrated from Ismail bin ‘Ubaid bin Rifa ‘ah, from his father, that his grandfather Rifa ‘ah said:
“We went out with the Messenger of Allah SWT and the people were trade early in the morning. He called them: “0 merchants!” and when they looked up and craned their necks, he said: “The merchants will be raised on the Day of Resurrection as immoral people, apart from those who fear Allah and act righteously and speak the truth (i.e., those who are honest).” (Narrated Ibnu Majah and Tirmidhi).
Entrepreneurship is one of the most overlooked vehicles for taking the ummah back to its golden age and giving da’wah at the same time. It is a great means to have meaningful impact in the world by changing the world in your own special and meaningful way and changing your own world for the better too. More and more people are starting businesses from their bedrooms because they see the possibilities and the potential. In this modern era of the internet and social media, people can start businesses from their laptops. As Halal Science Graduates, this is a big opportunity in spreading the knowledge of Halal through entrepreneurship because it acts as a tool for Da’wah, create social change, makes nations prosper and entrepreneurship is better alternative to solve unemployment problem . For this reason, the highlight of this study is to know what the job opportunities for UNISSA Halal Science graduates as Halal entrepreneur are and how it helps in the development of country and in reducing unemployment rate .
Definition of Entrepreneurship
Entrepreneurship is the ability and readiness to develop, organize and run a business enterprise, along with any of its uncertainties to make a profit. The word “entrepreneurship” is originally from the French word “entreprenerd” signifying ‘to embrace or to take in one’s very own hands. Business enterprise can be depicted as a procedure of activity a businessperson attempts to build up his venture. It is a creative activity that is based on the ability to create and establish something from nearly nothing. Entrepreneurs are risk takers who react to opportunities, bear uncertainty, and balance the supply and demand in the specific market .
Halal Entrepreneurship or Halalpreneurship
Halalpreneurship is holistic in Islam entails entrepreneurship as an element that is not separated from Islam. Halalpreneurship is the entrepreneurship that is within Shari’ah’s scope (Aqidah, Fiqh, Akhlaq). So that its activities are not alienated from obligations in Islam. Halalpreneurship includes the role of the human being as a Khalifah (Caliph) in the world, to develop and prosper the world; means the activities of entrepreneurship should contribute to the good and prosperity of society, Ummah and humanity [3, 4].
Entrepreneurship in Brunei Darussalam
Entrepreneurship is seen as vital, as it can provide an alternative solution to unemployment especially among fresh University graduates. His Majesty, the Sultan and Yang Di-Pertuan Negara Brunei Darussalam, in addition, has highlighted the importance of entrepreneurship in His Titah, in conjunction with the fifth National Youth Day held at the National Indoor Stadium in August 2010 .
“Youth involvement in entrepreneurship must continue to be encouraged through training and education, as a solid understanding of this area can help reduce unemployment among youth”
In the light of above order, the Bruneian government takes several initiatives in encouraging entrepreneurship to the young generation. These are several agencies responsible in the development of young entrepreneurs such as Darussalam Enterprise (DARE), I‑centre, Livewire and BIBD. These agencies are established to guide and give entrepreneurs seminars, training, and entrepreneurship courses. Other than these agencies, schools and universities also take a role in promoting entrepreneurship as one of the main courses.
The Brunei Darussalam is a small country, and it is blessed with natural resources such as petroleum and natural gas. Fortunately, with the discovery of oil in Seria during 1929, it has become the major drive for the country’s economy. And today, Brunei Darussalam’s gross domestic product (GDP) per capita is valued around USD30,666.620 in 2018. This shows how well and stable Brunei’s economy is, compared with our GDP per capita back in 1965 which is only USD1,113.819. Brunei Darussalam was recognized as the world’s most stable macroeconomy by the World Economic Forum (GCI 2010/11), Brunei Darussalam is ideally positioned as a destination for doing business and investment for the following reasons: High quality of life, political stability, strong oil and gas industry, well-educated population, modern infrastructure, strategic location, rich biodiversity, and attractive investment incentives .
Brunei has been prioritizing various clusters such as Halal, business services, technology and creative industry and tourism. At the same time, Brunei is committed to support local enterprises. Small and medium enterprise (SMEs) is an essential component in achieving Brunei Vision 2035. Since 2018, the government has been working closely with the private sector. Brunei successfully moved up from rank 108th to 56th out of 191 (Brunei Darussalam Key Indicators 2018) economies in the past 4 years. Darussalam Enterprise (DARe), along 4 with the support of the government has introduced various incentives for local entrepreneurs. Some examples are Industry Business Academy, Startup Bootcamp, and Micro Business Bootcamp. These incentives have shown a positive change in Brunei economy with generation of over 400 job opportunities created for locals .
Brunei Darussalam has made a several initiatives and has made a strategy developing opportunities away from oil and gas. These strategies also stated in achieving Brunei 2035 (Wawasan Brunei 2035) where one of the national strategies is local business development strategy. This will enhance opportunities for local small and medium sized enterprise (SMEs) as well as enable Brunei Malays to achieve leadership in business and industry by developing greater competitive strength .
It is rational to assume that high unemployment growth in Brunei is associated with an increasing number of job seekers in Brunei since job seekers demand for more job availability especially in the government sector as well as private sections because of the future job security. In addition to the precious reason, why there is a high rate of unemployment particularly in youth, is because they have a higher level of uncertainty getting into the labor market and this can have a huge impact on the individuals, communities, and economies. It is observed that majority of job seekers are still waiting for government positions since the mentality of graduates, for example, is still “there are no jobs for me after this” which clearly indicates how many feel that their education entitles them to job security. “Those who do go into the private sector, see it is a place for getting experience and training stage or temporary solution until a government vacancy offered .
The title of this study was chosen because the researcher felt it was very important in knowing the job opportunities for graduates in general and specifically for UNISSA Halal Science graduates not just in government sector but also in private sector such as being a Halal entrepreneur. The repetitive questions will be asked after graduating which is employment. It is important to acknowledge we and the others that employment is not just in government but also in another private sector such as being an entrepreneur.
Objectives of the Study
Based on the above statement, this research focuses on the following: To understand the difference between entrepreneur and Halal entrepreneur. To identify some job opportunities for UNISSA Graduates of Halal Science as Halal entrepreneur. To explore importance of Halal entrepreneurship in the development of country as means to reduce youth unemployment in Brunei.
The term entrepreneurship stems from the French word entrepreneur that suggests “to accomplish something” or “to embrace”. It is an imaginative activity that relies upon the ability to make and set up something from about nothing. Many scholars in entrepreneurship explained business entrepreneurship as facing challenges, responding to circumstances, bearing vulnerability, and creating a balance between demand and supply in the market. At the same time, entrepreneurship is ascribed as an efficient headway, which grasps in the purposeful and arranged outlook for changes, and it is the coherent perception of the open opportunities where such changes add to financial and social advancement. Regarding this, many scholars have characterized entrepreneurship as the business foundations that are coordinated to accomplish a few objectives towards social, cultural, monetary, and institutional through the activities of an individual or a group of individuals.
Entrepreneurship is an important aspect of life which is also inseparable from Islam where it is perceived as Halalpreneurship. The scope of Halalpreneurship is within the Shari’ah (Aqidah, Fiqh, Akhlaq) which ensures that its activities do not deviate from the guidelines of Islam. In Islam, Halalpreneurship is perceived as the role of Khalifah (Caliph) on the earth. The mission of Khalifah is to worship Allah Subhanahu Wa Taala (SWT) and to develop and prosper the world. Such a role implies the actions of entrepreneurship contributing to the good and prosperity of society, the world and humanity .
The term Halalpreneurship is recently being used in the fields of the global Halal industry that connects Halal advancement with business practices through Halalpreneurial activities. This includes the capacity and capability, exercises, and activities seeking opportunities and developing business establishment. The procedure of creativity and innovation in Halalpreneurship is complex. However, this phenomenon is significantly important to be understood for Halalpreneurial development. The concept of Halalpreneurship is based on Maqasid-al-Shari’ah which is to protect religion, life, lineage, wealth, and intellect .
Entrepreneur is a derivative of the French verb entrepreneur; that means literally to “undertake”. The German equivalent, unternehmer, closely translates to owner-manager (Drucker, 1985). Drucker described an entrepreneur as someone who searches for change, responds to it, and exploits it as an opportunity.
The term was used by Moha Asri Abdullah, International Institute for Halal Research and Training (INHART), International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM in a talk on “Halalpreneurs: Realities and Opportunities”. The institute has recently produced a book on this topic entitled “Halal Entrepreneurship” funded by the International Institute of Islamic Thought (IIIT), Malaysia. The book provides the concept and definition of Halalpreneurship. The term has also been used implying to entrepreneurship in the Halal industry by Global Islamic Economy (GIE) report-2018. Any Muslim individual conducting entrepreneurial business in the global Halal industry with the objective of producing only Halal products and services and maintains his or her business conduct in a Shari’ah-compliant way is called a Halalpreneur. However, according to Islamic scholars, non-Muslims can also be involved in the fields of the halal industry and become Halalpreneurs given the condition that they comply with Maqasid-al-Shari’ah.
Job opportunities for Youth Graduates as entrepreneur
Abdullah and Azam  included that Halalpreneurs have potential opportunities in the market of the travel industry to meet the faith-based needs that include Halal food, prayer facilities, water usage friendly toilets, Ramadan services and facilities, Halal spa, gender-segregated swimming pool and gymnasium, assurance of elimination of any non- Halal activity, recreational activities with privacy, Muslim friendly tour guide, etc.
No doubt, the entrepreneurship can be one of the initiatives for the youth to explore their talents and at same time in business start-ups and it is the best way to provide them employment and opportunity to earn income. Evidence suggested by Freeman and Wise  states that most youth have difficulties in getting and exiting employment. This problem is not because of a lack of desire to get a job but the ability of the unemployed to find one. Job shortage could be the determinant in the changes of responsiveness to employability demand. The main determinants of youth 6 unemployment come from three factors: aggregate demand, youth wages and size of youth labour force .
Syariena  listed successful alumni of UBD Incubation which is now running as full-time business owners. Not only limited to alumni of UBD Incubation but there are a lot of UBD graduates that were successful in becoming self-employed for full-time operation after graduating from UBD with the help of DARe. Feznchip is founded by local Bruneians where they offer the classic taste of UK food. One of the employees from Feznchip is from UBD PhD graduates that were struggling to find a job and with the newly operated business of Feznchip. Kotak Senyum is also run by UBD graduate couples as their full-time employment. With their innovative business ideas, they managed to open their own office, booking website and have a team of full and part-time employees. ZZ scarves are one of the university projects that turned into a full-time business, also run by UBD graduates, designing own scarves as individual projects in UBD. At the point where the scarves that were printed managed to be sold more than a 100 and bringing in accumulative sales for about BND$4,000. All these new start-up businesses eventually helped the Brunei economy with job creation and self-earning .
Importance of Halal entrepreneurship
The high unemployment rate among graduates especially in developed countries is not a new issue but worldwide. Many countries have taken an action toward unemployment issues through vagarious measures most recently via entrepreneurship since it is an essential tool in contributing to a country’s economic growth. It must be regarded as an important means in shifting the economy efficiently and effectively to yield a high productivity.
Some countries might experience high economic growth with the entrepreneurship acclivities, and some may experience slow economic growth and unemployment rate as a potential consequence of economic restructure. The relationship between unemployment and entrepreneurship can potentially be explained by researcher observation and found that unemployment will be lower when there is an increase in entrepreneurship. Interesting, we found that when rising unemployment rates in certain countries, it will motivate people to be more enterprising (or to engage with entrepreneurship). This observation supported by the study of Syariena  who found the interviewees agreed that entrepreneurship activities are important for the development of Brunei Darussalam. In a way, it helps Brunei to diversify their economy other than oil and gas. Being more enterprising can help Brunei to lower their unemployment rate because it can help create other jobs for the country. However, entrepreneurship is also risky due to the unstable condition when first started and the unattractive salaries which may cause more youth to divert away from being self-employed.
Materials and Methods
This research used mainly a qualitative approach which draw from both primary and secondary data. The primary data and information were collected through interviews with local entrepreneurs in different businesses. The secondary data was collected from the books and articles. Furthermore, the interview session took place in early June to eight local entrepreneurs in different businesses. Five of the selected youth have been operating their business for more than two years in their business lifespan. All interviewees have different entrepreneurial backgrounds varying from food and beverages to services as shown in Table 1. The other three of the entrepreneurs have been in the business for over 1 year. Table 1 below shows the details of the selected entrepreneurs during the interview session with their educational background and Table 2 shows the questions. After completing the interview session, all data sets will be analyzed with qualitative methods.
Table 1. Informant Business background (The informants are categorized as E1 until E8).
|Category||Educational Background||Name of Business|
|Food and Beverages: Study Cafe||Bachelor of Business Admin in University Brunei Darussalam||Learners Bar|
|Foods and spaghetti||Master of Halal Science in University Islam Sultan Sharif Ali||Bynajibahyussof|
|Cakes||Bachelor of Business Management in University Brunei Darussalam||Baked by Nisa|
|Barbeque Sauce and cookies||Bachelor of chemical engineering in University Technology Brunei||Hanani DesSavour|
|Cosmetics: Providing raw material for DIY health and beauty products||Bachelor of Chemical Engineering in University Technology Brunei||Kreative|
|Agent of Obsess cosmetic||Bachelor of Biology in University Brunei Darussalam||Maria Taruna|
|Arts and Entertainment, Apparel and Clothing||Business||Elzouq|
|Services: SSSRU (Ugama’s certificate) clinics||UNISSA’s graduates||Che’gu Core|
Table 2. Questions for Interview
|During interview sessions, it will cover questions such as:|
|What do you understand about the concept of entrepreneurship?|
|How do you define an entrepreneur and Halal entrepreneur? Are there any differences? And if yes, what are they?|
|Did your background education help you in becoming an entrepreneur?|
|List down the pros and cons of doing entrepreneurship?|
|Is there any potential job opportunity as Halal entrepreneur for UNISSA graduates of Halal Science? And what are they?|
|In your opinion, are Halal entrepreneurs important for the development of our country? Why?|
|Do you think being Halal entrepreneur helps in reducing unemployment of UNISSA graduates of Halal Science in Brunei? In what way it helps?|
During the qualitative method approach, the interview session should be done face-to-face with the selected interviewees. However, due to prevent closed interaction because of the world pandemic of Covid-19 and limitation of time hence interview sessions were done through social media platforms instead, such as Instagram and WhatsApp. Both entrepreneurs provide a great depth of information and details. In a study done by Opdenakker . He stated that the selected interviewed participants will provide great information details about themselves via a disclosed environment. He also agreed that this act is called self ‑disclosure which they reveal their personal information by their own willingness. Through this method, researchers can get honest responses given by the selected interviewees. Due to the anonymity between researchers and the interviewees, the interviewees can express their honest thinking and responses .
Researcher also used library research which plays an important role in the success of a study as a researcher’s reference. Researchers cite any data or information related to the title of researcher through reading materials such as books in library of UNISSA also got information the articles.
Results and Discussion
As mentioned earlier, this study is aimed at to understand the difference between entrepreneur and Halal entrepreneur, to what extend are there job opportunities for UNISSA Halal Science Graduates as Halal entrepreneur and to explore the importance of Halal entrepreneurship in the development of county and how can it help reduce youth unemployment in Brunei. To this paper, only eight of local entrepreneurs will be discussed and the results will be according to the objectives of the study. The informants are categorized as E1 until E8.
Understand the difference between entrepreneur and Halal entrepreneur
Out of eight informants, seven of them are agreed that there is a different between entrepreneur and Halal entrepreneur. Only one informant from Obsesses agent disagreed the difference. From seven informant, three of them added the similarity of entrepreneur and Halal entrepreneur in terms of business owner and profit loss.
E1, a local food entrepreneur that has graduated from University Sultan Sharif Ali in Halal Science and been doing her business for 2 years said that there was a beauty in entrepreneurship that can make people impressed such as it would build social relationship. The researcher has interviewed her regarding the entrepreneur and Halal entrepreneur, and she answered.
For me, both are two different things. If entrepreneur, they focus more on getting profit, they sell anything they want. If they get the profit. In this case, entrepreneur have larger market/consumer. As for Halal entrepreneur, they focus more about the quality, cleanliness of their products. They take care of it from A to Z (raw to finished product). In terms of market, Halal entrepreneur is the same as entrepreneur, non-Muslim consumer can also buy it. Different from entrepreneur. People (especially the Muslim) need to check, be particular before buying it.
E1 agreed that entrepreneur is different from Halal entrepreneur in terms of what, why and how they take care of their products. Halal entrepreneurs are more cautious in assuring the concept of Halalan Thayyiban of the products and along the process of making them. E1’s respond is similar with the next informants E2 which was a local entrepreneur that run the first study cafe for a year in Brunei Darussalam and she was a Bachelor of Business admin in University Brunei Darussalam and E3, food entrepreneur with business management background with business experienced for 3 years.
E2: The difference between both, one of it is the way how they conducted the business. Halal entrepreneurs are more cautious. Assuring the food are Halal, the chemistry thing on the product also needs to be Halal and so on. The product itself did not harm the user or consumers. Make sure the way they conducted business is not against Islamic law.
E3: There’s a different between those two. As entrepreneurship can be anything, clothes, providing services, foods, entertainment based on market demands but Halal entrepreneurship is a business that revolves around Halal products or services that followed Shariah law.
E4, informant which doing art and apparel business and had experienced in that field for 6 years said that there is similarity between entrepreneur and Halal entrepreneur in terms of their concepts but different in terms of what are they selling as stated below.
E4: An entrepreneur and Halal entrepreneur have a same concept which is profit and loss, but Halal entrepreneur has more concern about Halal product included where it is from and what is better to consume.
The next informant E5 which are cosmetic entrepreneur for more than 2 years with non-business background had same opinion with informant E4 which is entrepreneurs and Halal entrepreneurs would be faced with profit and loss. Entrepreneur is a businessperson in general and specific person for Halal entrepreneur, this was stated from informant E6 which is a food entrepreneur.
E5: Entrepreneur is sole trader that willing to take the financial risk to make some profits. Halal entrepreneur- same but more specific-selling products or services that is Halal and comply with Shariah law.
E6: Entrepreneur is a businessperson in general, but Halal entrepreneur is those businesspersons that implemented Shariah law throughout their business.
In general, entrepreneurship is anything related with business that can generate income. The main goal of a business entrepreneurship is to make money. But Halal entrepreneurship is specifically doing the business with what Islam had taught.
The statement of above informants contradicted with informant E7 which is cosmetic entrepreneur with non-business background. She disagreed that there is a different between entrepreneur and Halal entrepreneur because in her opinion, both are same.
E7: In my prospective their both same, what they provide or what product they produce to the people are the one that define ‘type’ of entrepreneurs.
The last informant, E8 as a pioneer in SSSRU clinics who runs tuition business and consists of 6 members that have graduated from University Sultan Sharif Ali said that.
An entrepreneur is the one who starts their own business venture in hopes of generating profit and knowing the risks of his losses. They are extremely driven with their goal to succeed, and we can say that they prioritize their business value over money. Halal entrepreneur or some say it Halalpreneur, is the sub-category of entrepreneurs. There are a lot of types of entrepreneurs; Muslimpreneur, Womenpreneur and Halalpreneur. Halal entrepreneur is holding on to Maqasid Syariah when conducting business. They prioritize the public interest for the benefit of the ummah by ensuring to obtain Halal certificates for their products and following the Halal standard and complying with the Halal policy.
According to E8, Halal entrepreneur is the sub-category of entrepreneurs. They also included the same statement as majority of informants which Halal entrepreneur is conducting their businesses that followed Shariah law and they also added that Halal entrepreneurs prioritize the benefit of the ummah by ensuring to obtain Halal standards and Halal policy for the products or services. In researcher opinion, E8 is a person with type of high awareness on Halal products. According to E8, there are a lot of types of entrepreneurs such as Muslimpreneur and Womenpreneur. His statement contradicted with Schumpeter’s statement on book of Entrepreneurial Opportunity which pointed out that entrepreneurs are prime movers of economic change. They are innovators, introducing new goods and new production methods, these are an innovator, a pioneer who introduces new goods and new ways of doing things. Clydesdale . According to him, there are varieties type of entrepreneurs such as pioneer, imitator, adaptive imitator, niche developer and follower.
To what extend are there job opportunities for UNISSA Graduates of Halal Science as halal entrepreneur
Out of 8, seven informants agreed that there are plenty of job opportunities as Halal entrepreneur for UNISSA Halal Science graduates. Only one informant was doubt in answering this question, which was from E5, said that.
E5: Not sure, but maybe in production industry.
E5 which is a local cosmetic entrepreneur that provided raw material for DIY health and beauty products. In my opinion, why she answered as stated above because she was the one that experienced in producing raw materials, and yes, she was really taking care of the safety and Halalness of the raw materials. Therefore, UNISSA Halal Science graduates can be Halal producer, and this is like E6’s answered. According to E6’s respond, UNISSA Halal Science graduates could be a Halal producer in varieties of sectors such as being Halal food and cosmetic producers.
E6: Yes of course, this may include halal food producers and entrepreneur. Halal cosmetics producers and entrepreneur. Halal health supplements and a lot more.
It is a good opportunity for fresh graduate of Halal education to secure their job in many Halal industries both food and non-food industries . Therefore, Halal Science graduates could do business on apparel, opening up Muslimah friendly wear and hair-salon, pproducing and selling what Muslim need such as tayammum (ready pack). This would make easier to the buyers to use the products. Below was the answer from informant E1, to her, of course there are job opportunities as Halal entrepreneur for UNISSA Halal Science.
E1: Of course, there is, for Halal entrepreneur, you can open a Muslimah friendly hair salon, selling what Muslim need for example for tayammum (ready pack), service menyertu.
The next informant E3 said that.
E3: Yes, for example providing Halall food or services such as letting people know where they can get Halal food from other countries or Muslimah fashion is also an opportunity they can get into.
According to informant E3, UNISSA Halal Science also could be Halal service entrepreneur such as letting people know where they can get Halal food or services such as massage etc. For example, opening business in guiding tourists, massage service that separated men and women. Abdullah and Azam  included that Halalpreneurs have potential opportunities in the market of the travel industry to meet the faith-based needs that include Halal food, prayer facilities, water usage friendly toilets, Ramadan services and facilities, Halal spa, gender-segregated swimming pool and gymnasium, assurance of elimination of any non-Halal activity, recreational activities with privacy, Muslim friendly tour guide, etc.
Halal entrepreneurs also needed in agriculture sector such as producing, selling, and distributing Halal fertilizers. This proved by informant E4.
E4: Yes, nowadays Halal entrepreneur is needed, such as food distributors, cosmetics distributors, farmer and in agriculture.
The next informants E2 and E7 said that we can implement our knowledge everywhere and being Halal science graduate does not restrict to work at any places.
E2: Whatever knowledge we gain, we can implement it everywhere if you know how to implement it. If UNISSA student can convince what they can contribute, they can.
E7: Yes, because having to graduate Halal science does not restricted them. They can work at any places.
As informants E2 and E7 mentioned above, we all can implement the knowledge we gain in everywhere. Therefore, we must use and apply it wisely. As Chief of Human Resource in Job Centre Brunei advised to the researcher that we can implement our knowledge to any jobs, Halal science graduates does not mean have to work as a Halal auditor or supervisor in governmental sector but also can opening up a business, She added to not just expect to work in our field but also tried to stayed away from the comfort zone because there will always be opportunities for all of us (Chief of Human Resource in Job Centre Brunei, 2021). This is a bit like informant E8’s responds.
E8: There is always an opportunity for those who want to become entrepreneurs if they have a strong will and motivation to strive in the business area. Halal industry is getting bigger over time, as we have seen in Thailand, Malaysia, and Indonesia. Brunei is currently doing the same, expanding Halal market inside and outside the country. We are all aware that Brunei is aiming to become a Global Halal Hub country, therefore the job opportunity will always be there if the Halal market industry is being prioritized.
The importance of Halal entrepreneurship in the development of country as means to reduce youth unemployment in Brunei.
To answer the third objective of this study, below are the informant’s responds:
E1: Of course, it is important, as it is one of the mechanisms that helps to stabilize our country’s economy. As we all know, Halal is growing rapidly nowadays. More people have been exposing with Halal entrepreneurs. So, more people know, there will be more demand. If there is demand, then our economy will grow and that will contribute to our country development. In Syaa Allah, with the knowledge and the business can fulfil the need of society and making easier to others, it will help reduce the rate of unemployment.
According to informant E1, an entrepreneurship helps to stabilize the development of the country by producing and providing Halal food or services. Halal industry has become one of the most rapidly developing fields which spreads globally. This proved by Thomson Reuters, Dinar Standard, and Dubai International Financial Centre on the paper of Deuraseh and Heradhyaksa  that has reported that the global Halal market has emerged as a new growth sector in the global economy which has been estimated to be worth around USD2.3 trillion (excluding Islamic finance). In other words, its growing at an estimated annual rate of 20%, the industry is valued at about USD560 billion a year . Therefore, there will be more demand, and this means growing of economy and will contribute to the development of country.
As Baumol  stated in paper of Salaheldeen, Nazri and Battour, he felt that the role of the entrepreneur is vital to economic growth. Salaheldeen, Nazri and Battour . Hence it will help in reducing the rate of youth unemployment in Brunei Darussalam. There is similarity opinion regarding the importance of Halal entrepreneurs towards the development of the country and reduction of unemployment rate among most informants. Majority of them agreed that Halal entrepreneurs are important in developing the country and it helps in reducing the youth unemployment rate. For instance, Halal Science graduates have job opportunities in government and private sectors such as Halal haram officers, Halal supervisor, Halal cosmetic producer etc. This like informants E4, E6 and E7’s answered.
E4: Halal entrepreneurs are important for development of our country because it will affect society to have better life which producing a harmony environment that can develop a country. Yes, it helps reducing unemployment of UNISSA graduates of Halal Science. They can fill the job opportunities in government and privates’ sectors, such as Halal haram officers, food vendors, teachers and many more.
E6: Yes, it acts as a means of providing we with jobs or even opening a job opportunity for other people and this will contribute to the development of this country. Yes of course. As mentioned above, being an entrepreneur is providing job for us.
E7: Yes, absolutely, as we are living in Muslim country, practicing Islam, we need more educated people like them to help other entrepreneurs, so that Halal products or services are monitored very well in this country. Yes, absolutely, by providing them job opportunities that they are good at of course.
The next informants E2 and E5 added that business with Islamic taught is the best way and consuming Halal products is good for our body.
E2: Yes, of course. We manage our business based on 5 Maqasid Syariah as our foundation. Our business is focus on preservation of the intellect with the 4 others as our pure holding focus together. This important. Business with Islamic taught is the best way. Yes, it is important for the development of country. Yes, but we need to educate more about Halal entrepreneur because it is important.
E5: Yes, very important, since we are a Muslim country, so everything needs to be Halal. Both products and services. Not too sure but being Halal entrepreneur is a very good one because once everyone knows that you’re offering Halal products or services, people will surely buy them, because Halal products are good for our body according to Al Quran. If you’re to compare imported products, sometimes we are not too sure it its Halal or not.
As Muslims, it is key to have faith in Allah and for our businesses to grow, this faith must be in place. It is mentioned in the Quran.
O you who have believed, shall I guide you to a transaction that will save you from a painful punishment? [It is that] you believe in Allah and His Messenger and strive in the cause of Allah with your wealth and your lives. That is best for you, if you should know.” (Al-Saff 61:10–11)
A major part of living life according to the Creator’s instructions is implementing a suitable diet. Choosing wholesome food and avoiding the unwholesome is essential to good health. God says in the Quran,19
“Eat of the good things which We have provided for you.” (Quran 2:172)
“Eat of what is lawful and wholesome on the earth.” (Quran 2:168)
The next informant E8 answered.
E8: Definitely. Our neighbouring country, Malaysia is one of the leading countries in Global Halal Hub with so many Halal entrepreneurs developing it. If Brunei is to become a Global Halal Hub country in the future, this will create a new market in business and attract foreign investors to begin investing in our ever-growing Halal industry. Education sector will be widened, factories will be built, unemployment issues will be reduced and many more.
According to him, yes, he was agreeing that Halal entrepreneurs are important to the development of the country. He proved with Malaysia as evidence of developing country with so many Halal entrepreneurs developing it. Minister of Energy, Manpower and Industry of Brunei Darussalam, Dato Seri Setia Dr Awang Haji Mat Suny bin Haji Mohd Hussein said that Halal industry in Brunei Darussalam has continued to improve. He noted that Brunei Darussalam is currently ranked among the top 15 out of 73 countries according to Thomson Reuters’ Global Islamic Economy Report for 2018–2019. It was their aspiration that Brunei Darussalam’s Halal and Islamic sector rises to become a leader in the global Halal Industry and a renowned Halal Hub,” said the minister .
Based on the interviews, majority of the informants knew and understand the difference between entrepreneur and Halal entrepreneur. However, both were also having a similarity in terms of general definition which is to generate income. Nurdeng Deuraseh, in several times especially during his 101 Seminar: Become A Halal Halalpreneur on 15 May 2019 as well as in his motivation course for Halal Science students, clearly stresses that any Muslim individual conducting entrepreneurial business in the global Halal industry with the objective of producing only Halal products and services and maintains his or her business conduct in a Shari’ah-compliant way is called Halalpreneur . Table 3 shows the summary of informant’s views in regard their understanding about difference between entrepreneurship and Halal entrepreneurship.
Table 3. summary of informant’s views in regard their understanding about difference between entrepreneurship and halal entrepreneurship.
|Based on country law or profit||Concept||Based on Maqasid Shari’ah|
|What people want and makes profit||What?||Goods or services based on product priorities such as necessities, comfort, luxury, not harmful and permissible (Halal) by Shari’ah|
|Efficiency and productivity + desire to maximize profit + any approach||How?||Efficiency and productivity + profit + Halal process|
|Solely based on market demand||For whom?||Muslim Ummah and humanity|
|Scope of knowledge is limited to business knowledge only||Knowledge||Islamic and Business knowledge. Non-Muslims can also be Halalpreneur based on the public interest (Maslahah)|
|Profit||Motivation||Profit + ‘al-falah’ in this world and in the hereafter.|
|Customers, workers, suppliers, manufactures, financiers, owners, community, and people.||Stakeholder||Customers, workers, suppliers, manufactures, financiers, owners, community, Ummah (under the preview of Allah)|
The researcher found that majority of the informants talked about being a Halal entrepreneur was specifically producing and selling Halal products such as foods that not containing haram ingredients and services that have been done according to Islamic law. Halal entrepreneurship is beyond selling and buying Halal products but also doing a right transaction and having a good characteristic as a Halal entrepreneur. According to Deuraseh , the businesses and entrepreneurial activities should be done in accordance the maqasid shariah with the guidelines predetermined in the Shari’ah law just like the other religious duties in Islam. This is important because the activities may regard as ibadah if such employment be performed with the sake of Islam notably with sincere intention, comply with the Shari’ah in their jobs and do not ignore the specific worship to Allah.
Several religious, moral, and ethical characteristics that are developed from the Islamic values, significantly distinguishes Halalpreneurs from entrepreneurs. Firstly, Takwa is the most important attribute of Halalpreneurs that lead them towards success making lots of profits through their business activities. In line with this faith, Halal becomes the priority for Halalpreneurs. As Allah recommends consuming Halal (Al Quran 5:88) as well as earn Halal (Al-Quran 2:168).
And eat of what Allah has provided for you [which is] lawful and good. And fear Allah, in whom you are believers. (Al Quran, Al-Mai’dah 5:88).
O mankind, eat from whatever is on earth [that is] lawful and good and do not follow the footsteps of Satan. Indeed, he is to you a clear enemy. (Al-Quran, Baqarah 2:168)
Halalpreneurs are also expected to behave responsibly both for consumption and expense as business activities are influenced by the prescription of not wasting by Allah (Al-Quran, Al- ‘Araf 7:31).
O children of Adam, take your adornment at every masjid, and eat and drink, but be not excessive. Indeed, He likes not those who commit excess.
Another characteristic of Halalpreneurs was mentioned by Faizal  in his study is to prioritize worship to Allah SWT which was also identified Sadeq  based on Quranic verses where entrepreneurship (worldly affairs) is encouraged but after praying. While prioritizing worship to Allah SWT Halalpreneurs become trustworthy in terms of both social and their business conduct. Thus, trustworthy is another characteristic of Halalpreneurs which has been mentioned by the Prophet (PBUH) himself. The Prophet (PBUH) encouraged truthful and trustworthy merchant to be with him together with martyrs on the day of Judgement (Al Tirmidhi, 14: 1213).
Halalpreneurs are ‘khalifah’ and have the responsibilities to develop prosperity and see business as part of ‘ibadah’ or good deed through the fulfilment of fardhu kifayah (communal obligation). While the Western businessperson is driven towards enterprise for the most part independent from anyone else intrigue and the longing for individual benefit, the Muslim business visionary begins a business with the expectation of satisfying The Almighty Allah SWT. In other words, a Halalpreneur regards his or her activities as ibadah in the frame of earning a Halal living Abdullah and Azam , as declared in Surah Al-Juma’ah:
O you who have believed, when [the adhan] is called for the prayer on the day of Jumu’ah [Friday], then proceed to the remembrance of Allah and leave trade. That is better for you if you only knew (9). And when the prayer has been concluded, disperse within the land, and seek from the bounty of Allah, and remember Allah often that you may succeed (10). (Al-Qur’an, 62: 9–10)
Results for the second objective of this study, the researcher found that out of 8, seven informants agreed that there are plenty of job opportunities as Halal entrepreneur for UNISSA Halal Science graduates. Majority of them did not only restrict the job opportunities on Halal food sector but they have widened it such as in cosmetic sector, clothing, travel, and tourism etc.
As informants E2 and E7 mentioned above, we all can implement the knowledge we gain in everywhere. Therefore, we must use and apply it wisely. As Chief of Human Resource in Job Centre Brunei advised to the researcher that we can implement our knowledge to any jobs, Halal science graduates does not mean have to work as a Halal auditor or supervisor in governmental sector but also can opening up a business, She added to not just expect to work in our field but also tried to stayed away from the comfort zone because there will always be opportunities for all of us (Chief of Human Resource in Job Centre Brunei, 2021). One of the informants argued that attitude is important in business, not the field of the study. This stated in the previous study titled Graduate employability through entrepreneurship .
Business Opportunities for Halal Entrepreneurs
The business opportunities for Halalpreneurs in the global Halal industry can be realized by looking into the current market status of the different fields of the Halal industry. Therefore, this section explores different components of the Halal industry where market opportunities can be tapped by Halalpreneurs.
The current market value of the global Halal industry is estimated to be US$4.7 trillion in 2018 including Islamic finance. This value is projected to be US$6.9 trillion by 2024 with a CAGR growth of 6.2% . The current market shares of different fields of the Halal industry and their projection by 2024. It shows that after Islamic finance, the biggest sector of the Halal industry is the Halal food and beverage industry followed by modest fashion, media and recreation, Muslim friendly tourism, Halal pharmaceuticals, and Halal cosmetics.
The Global Islamic Economy (GIE) report 2019/2020 reveals that the Muslim spending for Halal food and beverage (F&B) in 2018 was US$1.3 billion which has been projected to reach US$1.9 billion by 2024. The hot growth sectors of the F&B market are Halal ingredients, and meat-based meals and snacks. Halalpreneurs can tap the opportunities in these sectors by their innovative Halal products and exploring the gap in demand and supply chain. The opportunity is further spread over Halal organic and healthy foods, baby foods, emerging exporters, online restaurant booking, retail commerce, social media marketing, etc .
The Muslim millennials are the target consumer in this sector of the Halal industry. The market of modest fashion was estimated to be US$283 billion in 2018 and projected to reach US$402 billion by 2024. Innovative Halalpreneurs can offer products and services in this market in terms of modest luxury wears, modest sportswear, fashionwear for teens and tween, role modelling, blogging, etc.
Muslim Friendly Tourism
Opportunities in this sector of the Halal industry can be realized by realizing the demand supply side of the market. The demand for Muslim travellers comprises in terms of leisure, business, healthcare, and religious travel. On the other side, the supply side encompasses transport (bus, train, flights, etc.), accommodation (hotels, villas, resorts, apartments, homestays, etc.), F&B, travel agents, attractions and activities, Muslim friendly tour guides, and others related to travel and tourism. Such demand and supply are based on Muslim faith-based needs. Halalpreneurs have potential opportunities in the market of the travel industry to meet the faith-based needs that include Halal food, prayer facilities, water usage friendly toilets, Ramadan services and facilities, Halal spa, gender-segregated swimming pool and gymnasium, assurance of elimination of any non-Halal activity, recreational activities with privacy, Muslim friendly tour guide, etc.
Halal cosmetics and personal care is another booming market in the global Halal industry. As of 2018, the Muslim spending on Halal cosmetics was US$64 billion which is expected to grow US$95 billion by 2024. The product base of this industry is expanded to personal care products, colour cosmetics (face, eyes, lips, nails), and fragrance products. Additionally, these product lines are applied for hair care, face care, skincare, and beauty care. Halalpreneurs can feasibly tap the opportunities and generate revenues in this market. Some hot sectors of this industry for growth in 2020 are Halal nail polish, lipstick, Halal face cream, scents, and perfumes. The potential growth has been identified through e‑commerce. The cosmetics and personal care products are even demanded by men as they are conscious about their appearance as well. The Halal certification, i.e., the Halal logo gives a competitive advantage to the Halalpreneurs over competitors who do not have Halal certification .
Based on the interviews, Majority of the informants agreed that Halal entrepreneurship is important in development of the country, and it helps in reducing the unemployment rate. In terms of what Halal entrepreneurship helps the growth of economy are from many aspects. With the existence of Halal entrepreneurs will affects society to have better life which producing a harmony environment that can develop a country. Increasing of Muslim population means increasing of Halal demand hence this would help the development of the country.
In the study of Syariena Abd Rahman (2020) , she included the data regarding informal sectors in Brunei and unemployment rate. There is a significant increase in the number of informal sectors in Brunei mainly from MSME. The huge jump from 2017 to 2018 indicates that more MSME are just starting up their businesses at this period. During the period of 2017, Brunei Darussalam has experienced the highest unemployment rate in ASEAN that was 9.3%. Due the pressure of the unavailability and difficulties in finding a job during that time, more people are encouraged to do start-up business. Maxwell  agreed that youth are pursuing entrepreneurial activities as their ways of self-earning while creating innovative ways to make a living. As a result, there is an improvement by the year 2018 in the number of MSME recorded in Brunei. The data that had been provided by MOFE (Ministry of Finance and Economy) showed a positive relationship between unemployment and entrepreneurship in Brunei Darussalam. This finding shows the relevance between unemployment and entrepreneurship as supported by the previous studies by Cueto , when there is a high rate of unemployment in a country, any entrepreneurial activity will result in a positive impact. Crucial for a country like Brunei to encourage more youth involved in entrepreneurial activities because it helps the country to not be too dependent on oil and gas. It can be one of the alternative ways for Brunei to diversify and at the same time it helps maintain the standard of living in Brunei and eventually will promote growth in GDP .
The Global Entrepreneurship Monitor report confirmed that Opportunity drives most entrepreneurs in every economy, and many entrepreneurs strive to improve their lives through better income or more independence in their work. GEM also demonstrates the impact entrepreneurs have across the world by introducing innovations into their societies, creating jobs, competing globally, and contributing to the emergence and growth of industries (Global Entrepreneurship Monitor, 2018/2019) .
Entrepreneurship has become one of the vital activities for economic development. It is synonymous with job creation, innovation, improvement in the societal well-being and economic growth in developed and developing countries alike .
Although Brunei Darussalam is blessed with high GDP and positive economic growth it does not guarantee Brunei is free from economic problems. With steady increase in its economic growth, the unemployment rate in Brunei also increased at the same rate. However, this issue can be potentially reduced by encouraging the youth to participate and be more involved in entrepreneurship and self-employment. From the results above, it proved that there is a different between entrepreneur and Halal entrepreneur. Majority of the informants agreed that there are several job opportunities as Halal entrepreneur for UNISSA Halal Science graduates such as opening food business, as Halal cosmetic producer and selling what Muslim need for example for tayammum (ready pack), service menyertu (ritual cleaning). Halal entrepreneurship is important in the development of the country, and it helps in reducing unemployment rate in Brunei Darussalam. This research project can be extended by looking at the current pandemic Covid-19 situation where it forces most of the domestic businesses in Brunei Darussalam to close their businesses but at the same time there is an increase in home-based businesses. It could help to explore further measures of entrepreneurship roles in shaping and contributing to Brunei Darussalam’s GDP when there are shortages of supply chains in most goods and services that are exported and imported in and out from Brunei. Exploring entrepreneurship during pandemic situations will be a great extension to this research project, to examine further in terms of their motivation factors in becoming self-enterprising.
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