Halal Education: Curriculum Management Based on Halal Entrepreneurship at Nahdlatul Ulama University of Sidoarjo
Fatkul Anam1,2 and Nurul Istiq’faroh2
1 Departement of Teacher Professional Education, Universitas Wijaya Kusuma Surabaya, Indonesia Jl. Dukuh Kupang XXV No.54, Surabaya, Indonesia 60225.
2 Departement of Primary Education, Universitas Nahdlatul Ulama Sidoarjo, Jl. Monginsidi No. A23, Sidoarjo, Indonesia 61218.
Correspondence should be addressed to Fatkul Anam; firstname.lastname@example.org
Cite this: Nusantara Halal J. 2021, Vol. 2 No.2 pp. 1–10 (Article) | Received 18 August 2021 | Revised 13 November 2021 | Accepted 20 December 2021 | Published 28 December 2021 | http://dx.doi.org/10.17977/um060.2021v2p046-055
Indonesia is well-known for having the world’s largest Muslim population. As a result, Indonesia has significant halal market potential. After forming the Institute for the Study of Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics in the Indonesian Ulema Council, halal products became more widely known (LPPOM-MUI). Since then, public awareness and demand for Halal products have risen significantly, making Indonesia a lucrative market for halal businesses. In response to the rapid rise of the halal industry, a new curriculum has emerged in education to meet the difficulties of today’s industrial world. Halal entrepreneurship is a newly designed university program. This study was implemented to determine the curriculum management based on halal entrepreneurship at the Nahdlatul Ulama University of Sidoarjo. The result of this study can be reflected in the well-run and methodical planning, execution, and evaluation stages. The curriculum development team incorporates halal entrepreneurship into courses and teaches halal materials in halal food management, halal cosmetics, and halal supply chain management. At the end of each lecture, students participate in curriculum evaluation exercises used to improve the curriculum in the future.
Keywords: Education, Halal, Curriculum, Entrepreneurship.
The world demand for halal products is expanding daily [1–3]. According to the fact that the world’s growing Muslim population affects the business sector [4, 5]. According to estimates from the Global Majlis, the global Muslim population was 1.8 billion in 2012 and is expected to reach 2.2 billion by 2030. According to Thomson Reuters , the halal food industry will be valued at US$2.537 billion (21% of global spending) in 2019, the halal cosmetics market will be worth US$73 billion (6.78% of global spending), and the kosher personal needs market will be worth US$103 billion.
Halal is an essential part of Muslims’ lives . There are many rules in Islam, such as eating halal food. Everything allowed to be eaten by the Shari’a is called Halal . Consumers are becoming more aware that they should eat halal products because of their halalness, health, and perceived value, making them more interested in buying halal products .
Muslims have a positive attitude towards products that use a halal approach in the marketing process . According to Thomson Reuters in the State of Global Islamic Economy Report (2014–2015), halal products are the food industry and include the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries, Islamic-based financial systems, fashion, media, recreation, and the concept of halal tourism.
This study investigates the halal approach to the education management system used in university curricula. Management is derived from the Latin term manage, which means to regulate, organize, implement, organize, regulate, and treat [10–12]. When implemented, the management process must be carried out systematically while adhering to targets and objectives [13, 14].
Education is essential in solving the nation’s problems [15, 16]. Therefore, good management is needed to comply with current educational standards. Research by Caeiro et al  and Rands and Starik  states that education management in the United States has launched many training programs for principals to contribute to the realization of sustainable development actively.
Management significantly influences quality systems development [19–21]. Cortese  asserts that the higher education system can be viewed through education, research, higher education administration, and community contribution. Ferreira et al , Nicolaides , and Sammalisto et al.  demonstrate that the management system can be examined through education, research, and stakeholder interactions.
The Nahdlatul Ulama University of Sidoarjo is one of the universities implementing halal entrepreneurship-based curriculum management (UNUSIDA) located in the middle of the halal industry environment. UNUSIDA has a Halal Center program. In addition, UNUSIDA has been involved several times in assisting MSME halal certificates in the Sidoarjo area. Following up on issues related to halal management that are currently developing, researchers are interested in conducting this research on a halal entrepreneurship-based curriculum management system implemented at universities at UNUSIDA.
According to an Islamic perspective, entrepreneurship is one of the most common ways of conducting business [26–28]. Muslim company owners are expected to continue promoting suitable activities and securing the validity of their operations . Halal entrepreneurs are creative in seizing chances in the Halal market while adhering to Islamic precepts. As a result, the complexities of halal business must be included holistically within the curriculum. There has been little empirical research into halal entrepreneurship [5, 29]. Thus, this study was conducted to portray the planning, implementation, and assessment stages of the halal entrepreneurship-based curriculum management at the Nahdlatul Ulama University in Sidoarjo.
This study used the qualitative research method. According to Silverman , qualitative research is a type of research whose findings are obtained through descriptive analysis by describing the facts, followed by analysis. This study was conducted at the Nahdlatul Ulama University of Sidoarjo.
There are a variety of references and library sources about halal-based educational management as a data source for research. Documentation strategies, such as reading attentively and critically against numerous sources, are used to gather data. After reading, record the data that shows the connection with the purpose of this study.
This study focuses on curriculum management based on halal entrepreneurship. The following are research guidelines on the focus of research on halal entrepreneurship-based curriculum management.
Halal Education: Curriculum Management Based on Halal Entrepreneurship at Nahdlatul Ulama University of Sidoarjo
Figure 1. The research focus on halal entrepreneurship-based curriculum management
The Huberman & Miles  model is used in the data analysis technique, which aims to maintain the accuracy and the validity of the data (trustworthiness) validated through investigator triangulation. In this research, data is collected from various sources, backgrounds, and methods, including library research. Literature study is the first step in collecting data. According to Creswell , literature research is a data collection that is directed at searching for data and information through documents, written documents, photographs, pictures, and electronic documents that can support the writing process.
The curriculum can be defined as a document, plan, or blueprint for instructional guidance that is utilized to teach and learn to bring about beneficial changes in student behavior . In the perspective of Anwuka , curriculum planning is a process that outlines the planning of activities that are created holistically and following the learner’s environment.
At the planning stage, a curriculum development team developed the entrepreneurship-based curriculum design that integrates the halal value component. According to Alserhan , halal-based management is a policy that is managed with a written commitment made by the company to create halal products continuously. According to the research findings:
- Planning a curriculum based on halal entrepreneurship at Nahdlatul Ulama University of Sidoarjo at the Faculty of Economics, Management Study Program is motivated by the idea that halal entrepreneurship needs to be implemented in Islamic universities to be under the Islamic faith. As stated by Anggadwita  and Sarker  that Islam has its way of doing business, as detailed in the Qur’an and Hadith. Therefore, every activity carried out must be of religious value and beneficial for themselves and the community.
- The philosophical basis of the halal entrepreneurship curriculum is designed to reflect the Prophet Muhammad SAW’s entrepreneurial actions. Currently, halal is a trend in entrepreneurship. According to Jabbour, Santos, & Nagano  and Renwick , the halal principle is a popular academic topic.
- Planning is done by creating a curriculum structure starting from the formulation of Graduate Learning Outcomes (GLO), Course Learning Outcomes (CLO) and then integrating it into courses. Designing graduate learning outcomes is essential since it describes the achievements that students will get when they finish taking the course .
- This curriculum is designed by the team. The team was organized by the management study program at the Nahdlatul Ulama University of Sidaorjo. The curriculum development team includes the dean, study programs, and lecturers to create the halal entrepreneurship-based curriculum.
- The next stage is to determine the name of the course and the credit load. The course which discusses halal entrepreneurship is Applied Entrepreneur.
- The next stage is to determine the name of the course and the number of credits needed to complete it. The course which discusses halal entrepreneurship is Applied Entrepreneur.
As a result, thorough curriculum planning is supposed to result incompetent graduates. It is the ability to perform a task with a high degree of competence that defines a person’s ability. This course is designed to teach students how to run a halal-based business and submit halal-certified products to distributors and retailers.
What is needed to implement the curriculum is a learning process in which various competencies related to learning objectives are needed . The findings of this study are the implementation of halal entrepreneurship in the Applied Entrepreneur course. These courses’ subject matter or material is related to the halal concept, namely the management of halal food products, halal cosmetics, and halal supply chains.
Halal Food Product Management
This halal food product management material was taught using the student center learning system at the third meeting. The lecturer introduced the management process for submitting halal food products in Indonesia. Whereas business actors who apply for Halal Certificates are required to: (1) provide correct, clear, and honest information; (2) separate the location, place and means of slaughter, processing, storage, packaging, distribution, sale, and presentation between Halal and non-halal Products; (3) have Halal supervisors; and (4) report changes in the composition of materials to the Halal Product Assurance Administration Agency (BPJPH) .
In the third meeting, a student-centered learning method taught halal food product management. The lecturer explained the Indonesian halal food collection process. Whereas business actors who apply for Halal Certificates are required to: (1) provide accurate and complete information; (2) distinguish between Halal and non-Halal products in terms of location, place, and method of slaughter; (3) employ Halal supervisors; and (4) notify the Halal Product Assurance Administration Agency (BPJPH) of any changes in material compositions .
According to halal food management in Malaysia and Singapore. Malaysia claims to be implementing a halal food and beverage certification system . The industrial business sector manages food certification management for local and export . The certification procedure includes product audits and monitoring . In Singapore, the Islamic Religious Council (MUIS) regulates halal certification . In addition to eating establishments, the halal certification covers food processing spaces and poultry abattoirs and goods and storage facilities .
Halal Cosmetics Management
The fifth meeting included the halal cosmetic management material. Consumers are very interested in halal-certified cosmetics. Halal cosmetics differ from other cosmetic products in that they do not contain pork (or pork derivatives) or alcohol. Halal cosmetics must also be produced, stored, packaged, and distributed according to Islamic beliefs. Halal cosmetics are clean, safe, and of excellent quality . Because non-halal elements might contaminate halal products, companies that use halal as a brand must strictly monitor their products. Consumers will accept halal cosmetics if they are appropriately marketed .
Halal cosmetics are clean, safe, and of excellent quality . Because non-halal elements might contaminate halal products, companies that use halal as a brand must adhere to tight supervision. Demand for halal cosmetics is rising due to greater awareness of halal products . According to Jihan and Rosidah , religious customers are more likely to be aware of halal products, which may impact the demand for halal cosmetics.
Halal Supply Chain Management
The sixth meeting included halal supply chain management materials. This material describes halal network administration to maintain halal integrity from the source to the customer. Zulfakar, et al  define halal supply chain management as managing halal food products from numerous suppliers to various buyers/consumers, involving many partners in multiple locations. By managing halal food products to fulfil customer expectations (halal and non-halal).
Rasi  explains that halal supply chain management regulates the supply of raw materials for the manufacture, processing, marketing, and promotion of halal products. Halal supply chain management includes four primary activities: (1) halal procurement, (2) halal manufacturing, (3) halal distribution, and (4) halal logistics.
Lectures are delivered through a blended learning method. Istiq’faroh  defines blended learning as “learning that combines components of several learning methods.” One of the benefits of blended learning during the Covid-19 pandemic is that it may be done face-to-face or remotely. According to Dziuban et al , blended learning is one of the most effective learning approaches.
Students are also invited to visit several halal-certified industrial areas. Muyassaroh, Slamet & Sakti  defines a halal industrial area as part, or all an industrial area designed with systems and facilities to develop industries that produce halal products following the halal product guarantee system. The visit to the halal industrial area is intended to help students grasp halal management concepts and policies. Nahdlatul Ulama University of Sidoarjo is in a halal industrial district in Safe and Lock. For MSME companies, this Safe and Lock Sidoarjo Halal Industrial Area is the first in East Java and Indonesia. This area should also have a support structure to help Indonesia’s halal product industry grow.
Evaluation is very important to maintain the stability of education and some of the programs in it . In addition, Posavac and Carey  explain that there are several objectives of a curriculum evaluation program, including assessing student needs that have not been met, measuring outcomes, comparing alternative programs, and providing information to develop curriculum quality. The findings of the research are described as follows:
- Evaluation is conducted every semester based on course learning objectives that have been made. The principles used during the evaluation process include the principle of integration, namely the match between objectives, learning materials, and learning models.
- Involve the curriculum development team to discuss further the implementation of the halal entrepreneurship-based curriculum. One of the objectives of this curriculum evaluation activity is to find out how the success rate of the curriculum in supporting the development of the halal entrepreneurship base in universities is.
- Curriculum evaluation is also seen from student grades, which indicate student understanding after being taught. Materials that are considered difficult will be given additional hours of discussion so that students can understand what has been conveyed.
- Students are asked to complete the checklist in the SIM (Student Information System) online to assess lecture effectiveness. The checklist summarizes student replies during class. Students can criticize and recommend during lectures, which the curriculum development team will evaluate.
Thus, some of these findings can be used to evaluate and improve the curriculum in the next semester. According to Nyaema et al , the curriculum must be upgraded to suit the times. Halal policies, over time, will continue to develop. Therefore, the curriculum in universities must be able to adapt and innovate.
The halal entrepreneurship program at the Nahdlatul Ulama University of Sidoarjo involves a halal center. This program is conducted to support government halal policies. Abdullah & Azam  explained that Halalpreneurship is holistic, which means entrepreneurship is an inseparable element of Islam so that its activities cannot be separated from obligations in Islam. Halalpreneurship includes the role of humans as the leader (Khalifah) in the world to develop and prosper the world, meaning that entrepreneurial activities must contribute to the good and welfare of society, society, and humanity.
The findings in this study are explained as follows: first in planning. The curriculum development team reviews The Graduate Learning Outcome (GLO) and Course Learning Outcome (CLO) of the Applied Entrepreneur course before implementing the halal entrepreneurship curriculum. The new halal entrepreneurship curriculum is expected to benefit business stakeholders. Entrepreneurship can help achieve the SDGs while promoting sustainable economic growth .
The second implementation finding relates to halal food products, halal cosmetics, and halal supply chain management. Students learn how to apply for halal certification during implementation. Halal certification is issued to entrepreneurs who produce halal products or services . As research conducted by Hanzaee and Ramezani , halal certification is an activity or program to ensure that the products distributed are in accordance with Sharia law. The purpose is to motivate Muslim and non-Muslim entrepreneurs to make halal products. The halal certification will ensure consumers’ health, safety, hygiene, and product quality .
The third finding is in the halal entrepreneurship curriculum evaluation. Every semester, the curriculum is evaluated to identify its inadequacies. Students can submit feedback in a checklist that the curriculum development team can utilize to improve the program. Halal entrepreneurship curriculum is dedicated to higher education so that later it can contribute to the industrial world that can manage their halal business successfully . Halal entrepreneurship affects micro and macro analysis in multidimensional ways because it shapes organizations, individuals, and institutions, for example, markets and countries [7, 27]. Halal entrepreneurship is complex and must be taught holistically.
The existence of a halal entrepreneurship-based curriculum is one of the strategies for achieving better quality human resources for the halal industry. The sustainable growth of the halal business depends on the quality of the human resources that run it. Thus, systematic planning for a halal entrepreneurship-based curriculum must be well designed in Indonesia to provide sufficient knowledge about the concepts and aspects of halal management.
The halal entrepreneurship-based curriculum is one strategy for achieving better quality human resources for the halal industry. Entrepreneurial management from an Islamic perspective, or based on halal, is a current business trend. This study investigates the concept of halal in education, specifically as it is suggested in the curriculum, particularly in universities. The halal entrepreneurship-based curriculum management research is divided into three stages: planning, implementation, and evaluation. The study showed that the curriculum created during the planning stage was based on the philosophy of business science on the halal concept, the existence of a curriculum development team, and the incorporation of the concept of halal entrepreneurship in CPL and CPMK as contained in the Applied Entrepreneur course. The halal material offered during the implementation stage is relevant to halal food management, halal cosmetics, and halal supply chain management. The curriculum development team evaluates at the evaluation stage by looking at the criticisms and ideas provided by students through e‑learning at the end of the lecture to be used as material for future curriculum improvements.
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