Vol 2, No 2 (2021) 46–55

Halal Edu­ca­tion: Cur­ricu­lum Man­age­ment Based on Halal Entre­pre­neur­ship at Nahd­lat­ul Ula­ma Uni­ver­si­ty of Sidoarjo

Fatkul Anam1,2 and Nurul Istiq’faroh2

1Departe­ment of Teacher Pro­fes­sion­al Edu­ca­tion, Uni­ver­si­tas Wijaya Kusuma Surabaya, Indone­sia Jl. Dukuh Kupang XXV No.54, Surabaya, Indone­sia 60225.
2 Departe­ment of Pri­ma­ry Edu­ca­tion, Uni­ver­si­tas Nahd­lat­ul Ula­ma Sidoar­jo, Jl. Mon­gin­si­di No. A23, Sidoar­jo, Indone­sia 61218.

Cor­re­spon­dence should be addressed to Fatkul Anam; fatkulanam_​fbs@​uwks.​ac.​id

Cite this: Nusan­tara Halal J. 2021, Vol. 2 No.2 pp. 1–10 (Arti­cle) | Received 18 August 2021 | Revised 13 Novem­ber 2021 | Accept­ed 20 Decem­ber 2021 | Pub­lished 28 Decem­ber 2021 | http://​dx​.doi​.org/​1​0​.​1​7​9​7​7​/​u​m​0​6​0​.​2​0​2​1​v​2​p​0​4​6​-​055

Abstract

Indone­sia is well-known for hav­ing the world’s largest Mus­lim pop­u­la­tion. As a result, Indone­sia has sig­nif­i­cant halal mar­ket poten­tial. After form­ing the Insti­tute for the Study of Food, Drugs, and Cos­met­ics in the Indone­sian Ule­ma Coun­cil, halal prod­ucts became more wide­ly known (LPPOM-MUI). Since then, pub­lic aware­ness and demand for Halal prod­ucts have risen sig­nif­i­cant­ly, mak­ing Indone­sia a lucra­tive mar­ket for halal busi­ness­es. In response to the rapid rise of the halal indus­try, a new cur­ricu­lum has emerged in edu­ca­tion to meet the dif­fi­cul­ties of today’s indus­tri­al world. Halal entre­pre­neur­ship is a new­ly designed uni­ver­si­ty pro­gram. This study was imple­ment­ed to deter­mine the cur­ricu­lum man­age­ment based on halal entre­pre­neur­ship at the Nahd­lat­ul Ula­ma Uni­ver­si­ty of Sidoar­jo. The result of this study can be reflect­ed in the well-run and method­i­cal plan­ning, exe­cu­tion, and eval­u­a­tion stages. The cur­ricu­lum devel­op­ment team incor­po­rates halal entre­pre­neur­ship into cours­es and teach­es halal mate­ri­als in halal food man­age­ment, halal cos­met­ics, and halal sup­ply chain man­age­ment. At the end of each lec­ture, stu­dents par­tic­i­pate in cur­ricu­lum eval­u­a­tion exer­cis­es used to improve the cur­ricu­lum in the future.

Key­words: Edu­ca­tion, Halal, Cur­ricu­lum, Entrepreneurship.

Introduction

The world demand for halal prod­ucts is expand­ing dai­ly [1–3]. Accord­ing to the fact that the world’s grow­ing Mus­lim pop­u­la­tion affects the busi­ness sec­tor [4, 5]. Accord­ing to esti­mates from the Glob­al Majlis, the glob­al Mus­lim pop­u­la­tion was 1.8 bil­lion in 2012 and is expect­ed to reach 2.2 bil­lion by 2030. Accord­ing to Thom­son Reuters [6], the halal food indus­try will be val­ued at US$2.537 bil­lion (21% of glob­al spend­ing) in 2019, the halal cos­met­ics mar­ket will be worth US$73 bil­lion (6.78% of glob­al spend­ing), and the kosher per­son­al needs mar­ket will be worth US$103 billion.

Halal is an essen­tial part of Mus­lims’ lives [7]. There are many rules in Islam, such as eat­ing halal food. Every­thing allowed to be eat­en by the Shar­i’a is called Halal [8]. Con­sumers are becom­ing more aware that they should eat halal prod­ucts because of their halal­ness, health, and per­ceived val­ue, mak­ing them more inter­est­ed in buy­ing halal prod­ucts [9].

Mus­lims have a pos­i­tive atti­tude towards prod­ucts that use a halal approach in the mar­ket­ing process [10]. Accord­ing to Thom­son Reuters in the State of Glob­al Islam­ic Econ­o­my Report (2014–2015), halal prod­ucts are the food indus­try and include the cos­met­ic and phar­ma­ceu­ti­cal indus­tries, Islam­ic-based finan­cial sys­tems, fash­ion, media, recre­ation, and the con­cept of halal tourism.

This study inves­ti­gates the halal approach to the edu­ca­tion man­age­ment sys­tem used in uni­ver­si­ty cur­ric­u­la. Man­age­ment is derived from the Latin term man­age, which means to reg­u­late, orga­nize, imple­ment, orga­nize, reg­u­late, and treat [10–12]. When imple­ment­ed, the man­age­ment process must be car­ried out sys­tem­at­i­cal­ly while adher­ing to tar­gets and objec­tives [13, 14].

Edu­ca­tion is essen­tial in solv­ing the nation’s prob­lems [15,  16]. There­fore, good man­age­ment is need­ed to com­ply with cur­rent edu­ca­tion­al stan­dards. Research by Caeiro et al [18] and Rands and Starik [19] states that edu­ca­tion man­age­ment in the Unit­ed States has launched many train­ing pro­grams for prin­ci­pals to con­tribute to the real­iza­tion of sus­tain­able devel­op­ment actively.

Man­age­ment sig­nif­i­cant­ly influ­ences qual­i­ty sys­tems devel­op­ment [19–21]. Cortese [23] asserts that the high­er edu­ca­tion sys­tem can be viewed through edu­ca­tion, research, high­er edu­ca­tion admin­is­tra­tion, and com­mu­ni­ty con­tri­bu­tion. Fer­reira et al [24], Nico­laides [25], and Sam­mal­is­to et al. [26] demon­strate that the man­age­ment sys­tem can be exam­ined through edu­ca­tion, research, and stake­hold­er interactions.

The Nahd­lat­ul Ula­ma Uni­ver­si­ty of Sidoar­jo is one of the uni­ver­si­ties imple­ment­ing halal entre­pre­neur­ship-based cur­ricu­lum man­age­ment (UNUSIDA) locat­ed in the mid­dle of the halal indus­try envi­ron­ment. UNUSIDA has a Halal Cen­ter pro­gram. In addi­tion, UNUSIDA has been involved sev­er­al times in assist­ing MSME halal cer­tifi­cates in the Sidoar­jo area. Fol­low­ing up on issues relat­ed to halal man­age­ment that are cur­rent­ly devel­op­ing, researchers are inter­est­ed in con­duct­ing this research on a halal entre­pre­neur­ship-based cur­ricu­lum man­age­ment sys­tem imple­ment­ed at uni­ver­si­ties at UNUSIDA.

Accord­ing to an Islam­ic per­spec­tive, entre­pre­neur­ship is one of the most com­mon ways of con­duct­ing busi­ness [26–28]. Mus­lim com­pa­ny own­ers are expect­ed to con­tin­ue pro­mot­ing suit­able activ­i­ties and secur­ing the valid­i­ty of their oper­a­tions [3]. Halal entre­pre­neurs are cre­ative in seiz­ing chances in the Halal mar­ket while adher­ing to Islam­ic pre­cepts. As a result, the com­plex­i­ties of halal busi­ness must be includ­ed holis­ti­cal­ly with­in the cur­ricu­lum. There has been lit­tle empir­i­cal research into halal entre­pre­neur­ship [5, 29]. Thus, this study was con­duct­ed to por­tray the plan­ning, imple­men­ta­tion, and assess­ment stages of the halal entre­pre­neur­ship-based cur­ricu­lum man­age­ment at the Nahd­lat­ul Ula­ma Uni­ver­si­ty in Sidoarjo.

Methods

This study used the qual­i­ta­tive research method. Accord­ing to Sil­ver­man [31], qual­i­ta­tive research is a type of research whose find­ings are obtained through descrip­tive analy­sis by describ­ing the facts, fol­lowed by analy­sis. This study was con­duct­ed at the Nahd­lat­ul Ula­ma Uni­ver­si­ty of Sidoarjo.

There are a vari­ety of ref­er­ences and library sources about halal-based edu­ca­tion­al man­age­ment as a data source for research. Doc­u­men­ta­tion strate­gies, such as read­ing atten­tive­ly and crit­i­cal­ly against numer­ous sources, are used to gath­er data. After read­ing, record the data that shows the con­nec­tion with the pur­pose of this study.

This study focus­es on cur­ricu­lum man­age­ment based on halal entre­pre­neur­ship. The fol­low­ing are research guide­lines on the focus of research on halal entre­pre­neur­ship-based cur­ricu­lum management.

Halal Edu­ca­tion: Cur­ricu­lum Man­age­ment Based on Halal Entre­pre­neur­ship at Nahd­lat­ul Ula­ma Uni­ver­si­ty of Sidoarjo

Fig­ure 1. The research focus on halal entre­pre­neur­ship-based cur­ricu­lum management

The Huber­man & Miles [32] mod­el is used in the data analy­sis tech­nique, which aims to main­tain the accu­ra­cy and the valid­i­ty of the data (trust­wor­thi­ness) val­i­dat­ed through inves­ti­ga­tor tri­an­gu­la­tion. In this research, data is col­lect­ed from var­i­ous sources, back­grounds, and meth­ods, includ­ing library research. Lit­er­a­ture study is the first step in col­lect­ing data. Accord­ing to Creswell [33], lit­er­a­ture research is a data col­lec­tion that is direct­ed at search­ing for data and infor­ma­tion through doc­u­ments, writ­ten doc­u­ments, pho­tographs, pic­tures, and elec­tron­ic doc­u­ments that can sup­port the writ­ing process.

Results

Curriculum Planning

The cur­ricu­lum can be defined as a doc­u­ment, plan, or blue­print for instruc­tion­al guid­ance that is uti­lized to teach and learn to bring about ben­e­fi­cial changes in stu­dent behav­ior [34]. In the per­spec­tive of Anwu­ka [35], cur­ricu­lum plan­ning is a process that out­lines the plan­ning of activ­i­ties that are cre­at­ed holis­ti­cal­ly and fol­low­ing the learn­er’s environment.

At the plan­ning stage, a cur­ricu­lum devel­op­ment team devel­oped the entre­pre­neur­ship-based cur­ricu­lum design that inte­grates the halal val­ue com­po­nent. Accord­ing to Alser­han [36], halal-based man­age­ment is a pol­i­cy that is man­aged with a writ­ten com­mit­ment made by the com­pa­ny to cre­ate halal prod­ucts con­tin­u­ous­ly. Accord­ing to the research findings:

  1. Plan­ning a cur­ricu­lum based on halal entre­pre­neur­ship at Nahd­lat­ul Ula­ma Uni­ver­si­ty of Sidoar­jo at the Fac­ul­ty of Eco­nom­ics, Man­age­ment Study Pro­gram is moti­vat­ed by the idea that halal entre­pre­neur­ship needs to be imple­ment­ed in Islam­ic uni­ver­si­ties to be under the Islam­ic faith. As stat­ed by Anggad­wi­ta [37] and Sark­er [38] that Islam has its way of doing busi­ness, as detailed in the Qur’an and Hadith. There­fore, every activ­i­ty car­ried out must be of reli­gious val­ue and ben­e­fi­cial for them­selves and the community.
  2. The philo­soph­i­cal basis of the halal entre­pre­neur­ship cur­ricu­lum is designed to reflect the Prophet Muham­mad SAW’s entre­pre­neur­ial actions. Cur­rent­ly, halal is a trend in entre­pre­neur­ship. Accord­ing to Jab­bour, San­tos, & Nagano [39] and Ren­wick [40], the halal prin­ci­ple is a pop­u­lar aca­d­e­m­ic topic.
  3. Plan­ning is done by cre­at­ing a cur­ricu­lum struc­ture start­ing from the for­mu­la­tion of Grad­u­ate Learn­ing Out­comes (GLO), Course Learn­ing Out­comes (CLO) and then inte­grat­ing it into cours­es. Design­ing grad­u­ate learn­ing out­comes is essen­tial since it describes the achieve­ments that stu­dents will get when they fin­ish tak­ing the course [41].
  4. This cur­ricu­lum is designed by the team. The team was orga­nized by the man­age­ment study pro­gram at the Nahd­lat­ul Ula­ma Uni­ver­si­ty of Sidaor­jo. The cur­ricu­lum devel­op­ment team includes the dean, study pro­grams, and lec­tur­ers to cre­ate the halal entre­pre­neur­ship-based curriculum.
  5. The next stage is to deter­mine the name of the course and the cred­it load. The course which dis­cuss­es halal entre­pre­neur­ship is Applied Entrepreneur.
  6. The next stage is to deter­mine the name of the course and the num­ber of cred­its need­ed to com­plete it. The course which dis­cuss­es halal entre­pre­neur­ship is Applied Entrepreneur.

As a result, thor­ough cur­ricu­lum plan­ning is sup­posed to result incom­pe­tent grad­u­ates. It is the abil­i­ty to per­form a task with a high degree of com­pe­tence that defines a per­son­’s abil­i­ty. This course is designed to teach stu­dents how to run a halal-based busi­ness and sub­mit halal-cer­ti­fied prod­ucts to dis­trib­u­tors and retailers.

Implementation

Course Descrip­tion

What is need­ed to imple­ment the cur­ricu­lum is a learn­ing process in which var­i­ous com­pe­ten­cies relat­ed to learn­ing objec­tives are need­ed [42]. The find­ings of this study are the imple­men­ta­tion of halal entre­pre­neur­ship in the Applied Entre­pre­neur course. These cours­es’ sub­ject mat­ter or mate­r­i­al is relat­ed to the halal con­cept, name­ly the man­age­ment of halal food prod­ucts, halal cos­met­ics, and halal sup­ply chains.

Halal Food Prod­uct Management

This halal food prod­uct man­age­ment mate­r­i­al was taught using the stu­dent cen­ter learn­ing sys­tem at the third meet­ing. The lec­tur­er intro­duced the man­age­ment process for sub­mit­ting halal food prod­ucts in Indone­sia. Where­as busi­ness actors who apply for Halal Cer­tifi­cates are required to: (1) pro­vide cor­rect, clear, and hon­est infor­ma­tion; (2) sep­a­rate the loca­tion, place and means of slaugh­ter, pro­cess­ing, stor­age, pack­ag­ing, dis­tri­b­u­tion, sale, and pre­sen­ta­tion between Halal and non-halal Prod­ucts; (3) have Halal super­vi­sors; and (4) report changes in the com­po­si­tion of mate­ri­als to the Halal Prod­uct Assur­ance Admin­is­tra­tion Agency (BPJPH) [43].

In the third meet­ing, a stu­dent-cen­tered learn­ing method taught halal food prod­uct man­age­ment. The lec­tur­er explained the Indone­sian halal food col­lec­tion process. Where­as busi­ness actors who apply for Halal Cer­tifi­cates are required to: (1) pro­vide accu­rate and com­plete infor­ma­tion; (2) dis­tin­guish between Halal and non-Halal prod­ucts in terms of loca­tion, place, and method of slaugh­ter; (3) employ Halal super­vi­sors; and (4) noti­fy the Halal Prod­uct Assur­ance Admin­is­tra­tion Agency (BPJPH) of any changes in mate­r­i­al com­po­si­tions [43].

Accord­ing to halal food man­age­ment in Malaysia and Sin­ga­pore. Malaysia claims to be imple­ment­ing a halal food and bev­er­age cer­ti­fi­ca­tion sys­tem [44]. The indus­tri­al busi­ness sec­tor man­ages food cer­ti­fi­ca­tion man­age­ment for local and export [45]. The cer­ti­fi­ca­tion pro­ce­dure includes prod­uct audits and mon­i­tor­ing [46]. In Sin­ga­pore, the Islam­ic Reli­gious Coun­cil (MUIS) reg­u­lates halal cer­ti­fi­ca­tion [47]. In addi­tion to eat­ing estab­lish­ments, the halal cer­ti­fi­ca­tion cov­ers food pro­cess­ing spaces and poul­try abat­toirs and goods and stor­age facil­i­ties [48].

Halal Cos­met­ics Management

The fifth meet­ing includ­ed the halal cos­met­ic man­age­ment mate­r­i­al. Con­sumers are very inter­est­ed in halal-cer­ti­fied cos­met­ics. Halal cos­met­ics dif­fer from oth­er cos­met­ic prod­ucts in that they do not con­tain pork (or pork deriv­a­tives) or alco­hol. Halal cos­met­ics must also be pro­duced, stored, pack­aged, and dis­trib­uted accord­ing to Islam­ic beliefs. Halal cos­met­ics are clean, safe, and of excel­lent qual­i­ty [49]. Because non-halal ele­ments might con­t­a­m­i­nate halal prod­ucts, com­pa­nies that use halal as a brand must strict­ly mon­i­tor their prod­ucts. Con­sumers will accept halal cos­met­ics if they are appro­pri­ate­ly mar­ket­ed [50].

Halal cos­met­ics are clean, safe, and of excel­lent qual­i­ty [49]. Because non-halal ele­ments might con­t­a­m­i­nate halal prod­ucts, com­pa­nies that use halal as a brand must adhere to tight super­vi­sion. Demand for halal cos­met­ics is ris­ing due to greater aware­ness of halal prod­ucts [51]. Accord­ing to Jihan and Rosi­dah [52], reli­gious cus­tomers are more like­ly to be aware of halal prod­ucts, which may impact the demand for halal cosmetics.

Halal Sup­ply Chain Management

The sixth meet­ing includ­ed halal sup­ply chain man­age­ment mate­ri­als. This mate­r­i­al describes halal net­work admin­is­tra­tion to main­tain halal integri­ty from the source to the cus­tomer. Zul­fakar, et al [53] define halal sup­ply chain man­age­ment as man­ag­ing halal food prod­ucts from numer­ous sup­pli­ers to var­i­ous buyers/​consumers, involv­ing many part­ners in mul­ti­ple loca­tions. By man­ag­ing halal food prod­ucts to ful­fil cus­tomer expec­ta­tions (halal and non-halal).

Rasi [54] explains that halal sup­ply chain man­age­ment reg­u­lates the sup­ply of raw mate­ri­als for the man­u­fac­ture, pro­cess­ing, mar­ket­ing, and pro­mo­tion of halal prod­ucts. Halal sup­ply chain man­age­ment includes four pri­ma­ry activ­i­ties: (1) halal pro­cure­ment, (2) halal man­u­fac­tur­ing, (3) halal dis­tri­b­u­tion, and (4) halal logistics.

Lec­ture System

Lec­tures are deliv­ered through a blend­ed learn­ing method. Istiq’­faroh [55] defines blend­ed learn­ing as “learn­ing that com­bines com­po­nents of sev­er­al learn­ing meth­ods.” One of the ben­e­fits of blend­ed learn­ing dur­ing the Covid-19 pan­dem­ic is that it may be done face-to-face or remote­ly. Accord­ing to Dzi­uban et al [56], blend­ed learn­ing is one of the most effec­tive learn­ing approaches.

Stu­dents are also invit­ed to vis­it sev­er­al halal-cer­ti­fied indus­tri­al areas. Muyas­saroh, Slamet & Sak­ti [57] defines a halal indus­tri­al area as part, or all an indus­tri­al area designed with sys­tems and facil­i­ties to devel­op indus­tries that pro­duce halal prod­ucts fol­low­ing the halal prod­uct guar­an­tee sys­tem. The vis­it to the halal indus­tri­al area is intend­ed to help stu­dents grasp halal man­age­ment con­cepts and poli­cies. Nahd­lat­ul Ula­ma Uni­ver­si­ty of Sidoar­jo is in a halal indus­tri­al dis­trict in Safe and Lock. For MSME com­pa­nies, this Safe and Lock Sidoar­jo Halal Indus­tri­al Area is the first in East Java and Indone­sia. This area should also have a sup­port struc­ture to help Indone­si­a’s halal prod­uct indus­try grow.

Cur­ricu­lum Evaluation

Eval­u­a­tion is very impor­tant to main­tain the sta­bil­i­ty of edu­ca­tion and some of the pro­grams in it [58]. In addi­tion, Posavac and Carey [59] explain that there are sev­er­al objec­tives of a cur­ricu­lum eval­u­a­tion pro­gram, includ­ing assess­ing stu­dent needs that have not been met, mea­sur­ing out­comes, com­par­ing alter­na­tive pro­grams, and pro­vid­ing infor­ma­tion to devel­op cur­ricu­lum qual­i­ty. The find­ings of the research are described as follows:

  1. Eval­u­a­tion is con­duct­ed every semes­ter based on course learn­ing objec­tives that have been made. The prin­ci­ples used dur­ing the eval­u­a­tion process include the prin­ci­ple of inte­gra­tion, name­ly the match between objec­tives, learn­ing mate­ri­als, and learn­ing models.
  2. Involve the cur­ricu­lum devel­op­ment team to dis­cuss fur­ther the imple­men­ta­tion of the halal entre­pre­neur­ship-based cur­ricu­lum. One of the objec­tives of this cur­ricu­lum eval­u­a­tion activ­i­ty is to find out how the suc­cess rate of the cur­ricu­lum in sup­port­ing the devel­op­ment of the halal entre­pre­neur­ship base in uni­ver­si­ties is.
  3. Cur­ricu­lum eval­u­a­tion is also seen from stu­dent grades, which indi­cate stu­dent under­stand­ing after being taught. Mate­ri­als that are con­sid­ered dif­fi­cult will be giv­en addi­tion­al hours of dis­cus­sion so that stu­dents can under­stand what has been conveyed.
  4. Stu­dents are asked to com­plete the check­list in the SIM (Stu­dent Infor­ma­tion Sys­tem) online to assess lec­ture effec­tive­ness. The check­list sum­ma­rizes stu­dent replies dur­ing class. Stu­dents can crit­i­cize and rec­om­mend dur­ing lec­tures, which the cur­ricu­lum devel­op­ment team will evaluate.

Thus, some of these find­ings can be used to eval­u­ate and improve the cur­ricu­lum in the next semes­ter. Accord­ing to Nyae­ma et al [60], the cur­ricu­lum must be upgrad­ed to suit the times. Halal poli­cies, over time, will con­tin­ue to devel­op. There­fore, the cur­ricu­lum in uni­ver­si­ties must be able to adapt and innovate.

Discussion

The halal entre­pre­neur­ship pro­gram at the Nahd­lat­ul Ula­ma Uni­ver­si­ty of Sidoar­jo involves a halal cen­ter. This pro­gram is con­duct­ed to sup­port gov­ern­ment halal poli­cies. Abdul­lah & Azam [61] explained that Halal­pre­neur­ship is holis­tic, which means entre­pre­neur­ship is an insep­a­ra­ble ele­ment of Islam so that its activ­i­ties can­not be sep­a­rat­ed from oblig­a­tions in Islam. Halal­pre­neur­ship includes the role of humans as the leader (Khal­i­fah) in the world to devel­op and pros­per the world, mean­ing that entre­pre­neur­ial activ­i­ties must con­tribute to the good and wel­fare of soci­ety, soci­ety, and humanity.

The find­ings in this study are explained as fol­lows: first in plan­ning. The cur­ricu­lum devel­op­ment team reviews The Grad­u­ate Learn­ing Out­come (GLO) and Course Learn­ing Out­come (CLO) of the Applied Entre­pre­neur course before imple­ment­ing the halal entre­pre­neur­ship cur­ricu­lum. The new halal entre­pre­neur­ship cur­ricu­lum is expect­ed to ben­e­fit busi­ness stake­hold­ers. Entre­pre­neur­ship can help achieve the SDGs while pro­mot­ing sus­tain­able eco­nom­ic growth [62].

The sec­ond imple­men­ta­tion find­ing relates to halal food prod­ucts, halal cos­met­ics, and halal sup­ply chain man­age­ment. Stu­dents learn how to apply for halal cer­ti­fi­ca­tion dur­ing imple­men­ta­tion. Halal cer­ti­fi­ca­tion is issued to entre­pre­neurs who pro­duce halal prod­ucts or ser­vices [63].  As research con­duct­ed by Han­za­ee and Ramezani [64], halal cer­ti­fi­ca­tion is an activ­i­ty or pro­gram to ensure that the prod­ucts dis­trib­uted are in accor­dance with Sharia law. The pur­pose is to moti­vate Mus­lim and non-Mus­lim entre­pre­neurs to make halal prod­ucts. The halal cer­ti­fi­ca­tion will ensure con­sumers’ health, safe­ty, hygiene, and prod­uct qual­i­ty [65].

The third find­ing is in the halal entre­pre­neur­ship cur­ricu­lum eval­u­a­tion. Every semes­ter, the cur­ricu­lum is eval­u­at­ed to iden­ti­fy its inad­e­qua­cies. Stu­dents can sub­mit feed­back in a check­list that the cur­ricu­lum devel­op­ment team can uti­lize to improve the pro­gram. Halal entre­pre­neur­ship cur­ricu­lum is ded­i­cat­ed to high­er edu­ca­tion so that lat­er it can con­tribute to the indus­tri­al world that can man­age their halal busi­ness suc­cess­ful­ly [66]. Halal entre­pre­neur­ship affects micro and macro analy­sis in mul­ti­di­men­sion­al ways because it shapes orga­ni­za­tions, indi­vid­u­als, and insti­tu­tions, for exam­ple, mar­kets and coun­tries [7, 27]. Halal entre­pre­neur­ship is com­plex and must be taught holistically.

The exis­tence of a halal entre­pre­neur­ship-based cur­ricu­lum is one of the strate­gies for achiev­ing bet­ter qual­i­ty human resources for the halal indus­try. The sus­tain­able growth of the halal busi­ness depends on the qual­i­ty of the human resources that run it. Thus, sys­tem­at­ic plan­ning for a halal entre­pre­neur­ship-based cur­ricu­lum must be well designed in Indone­sia to pro­vide suf­fi­cient knowl­edge about the con­cepts and aspects of halal management.

Conclusions

The halal entre­pre­neur­ship-based cur­ricu­lum is one strat­e­gy for achiev­ing bet­ter qual­i­ty human resources for the halal indus­try.  Entre­pre­neur­ial man­age­ment from an Islam­ic per­spec­tive, or based on halal, is a cur­rent busi­ness trend. This study inves­ti­gates the con­cept of halal in edu­ca­tion, specif­i­cal­ly as it is sug­gest­ed in the cur­ricu­lum, par­tic­u­lar­ly in uni­ver­si­ties. The halal entre­pre­neur­ship-based cur­ricu­lum man­age­ment research is divid­ed into three stages: plan­ning, imple­men­ta­tion, and eval­u­a­tion. The study showed that the cur­ricu­lum cre­at­ed dur­ing the plan­ning stage was based on the phi­los­o­phy of busi­ness sci­ence on the halal con­cept, the exis­tence of a cur­ricu­lum devel­op­ment team, and the incor­po­ra­tion of the con­cept of halal entre­pre­neur­ship in CPL and CPMK as con­tained in the Applied Entre­pre­neur course. The halal mate­r­i­al offered dur­ing the imple­men­ta­tion stage is rel­e­vant to halal food man­age­ment, halal cos­met­ics, and halal sup­ply chain man­age­ment. The cur­ricu­lum devel­op­ment team eval­u­ates at the eval­u­a­tion stage by look­ing at the crit­i­cisms and ideas pro­vid­ed by stu­dents through e‑learning at the end of the lec­ture to be used as mate­r­i­al for future cur­ricu­lum improvements.

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