Vol 2, No 1 (2021) 16–23

Sharia com­pli­ance as the poten­tial fac­tor for halal tourism des­ti­na­tion devel­op­ment

Shofiyun Nahid­loh and Lailat­ul Qadariyah

Fac­ul­ty of Islam­ic Stud­ies, Uni­ver­si­tas Truno­joyo Madu­ra, 69162 Indonesia.

Cor­re­spon­dence should be addressed to Shofiyun Nahid­loh: shofiyun52@​gmail.​com

Cite this: Nusan­tara Halal J. 2021, Vol. 2 No.1 pp. 16–23 (Arti­cle) | Received 4 March 2021 | Revised 7 May 2021 | Accept­ed 12 June 2021 | Pub­lished 30 June 2021 | http://​dx​.doi​.org/​1​0​.​1​7​9​7​7​/​u​m​0​6​0​.​2​0​2​1​v​2​p​0​1​6​-​023

Abstract

This study aimed to iden­ti­fy the appro­pri­ate char­ac­ter­is­tics of assis­tive tech­nol­o­gy to facil­i­tate the qual­i­ty The sub­stan­tial poten­tial of Indone­sian halal tourism expan­sion has obtained soci­ety’s imme­di­ate atten­tion. It is reflect­ed in Indone­sian Mus­lim major­i­ty soci­ety’s reli­gious enthu­si­asm, poten­tial­ly appeal­ing halal tourism des­ti­na­tion resources, and the eco­nom­ic poten­tial to enhance social wel­fare. Recent­ly, soci­ety has put tourism as one of their needs, not as their leisure activ­i­ty. Many tourists in Indone­sia have been declared as halal tourism sites. How­ev­er, many peo­ple per­ceive halal tourism as a mere trend and brand adopt­ed due to the halal sub­stan­tial, like hotels and restau­rants. There­fore, a sharia prin­ci­ple is crit­i­cal­ly required to be the fun­da­men­tal or guide­line for the halal con­cept imple­men­ta­tion. The halal con­cept can be suc­cess­ful­ly imple­ment­ed if sharia com­pli­ance has expand­ed. Besides, the estab­lish­ment of halal tourism should also fol­low the sharia prin­ci­ples to ensure the adop­tion of sharia val­ues due to the con­sid­er­able num­ber of tourists. Sharia com­pli­ance becomes one of the Mus­lim iden­ti­ties, as shown from the role of the Mus­lim cler­ics on the sci­en­tif­ic forum and research that artic­u­late halal tourism estab­lish­ment car­ries excel­lent oppor­tu­ni­ty to improve soci­ety’s econ­o­my and well-being. There­fore, social com­pli­ance is the potent fac­tor to be con­sis­tent­ly cul­ti­vat­ed through Indone­sian halal tourism potential.

Key­words: Sharia com­pli­ance, halal tourism des­ti­na­tion, poten­tial fac­tor, social compliance.

Introduction

Cur­rent­ly, the for­mal or non-for­mal halal cer­ti­fi­ca­tion or halal guar­an­tee of a prod­uct has been fre­quent­ly dis­cussed in pub­lic. As the Mus­lim major­i­ty coun­try, Indone­sia can estab­lish a sys­tem of halal prod­ucts and tourism des­ti­na­tions. The dis­course on this top­ic has also been pro­mot­ed by var­i­ous forums and com­mu­ni­ties that adopt halal terms, includ­ing halal tourism. The numer­ous tourism des­ti­na­tions in Indone­sia cre­ate the mas­sive poten­tial to be devel­oped into halal tourism. Con­se­quent­ly, soci­ety aspires the local and cen­ter gov­ern­ment to enact a rel­e­vant pol­i­cy that can be com­pre­hen­sive­ly imple­ment­ed. It will bring tremen­dous effects on the social econ­o­my and welfare.

Tourism has been placed as one of the peo­ple’s pur­pos­es and needs. Thus, the enact­ment of rel­e­vant reg­u­la­tion facil­i­tates prop­er man­age­ment, pri­mar­i­ly on the soci­ety’s man­ner on the halal tourism sys­tem and admin­is­tra­tion. Indone­sia has an abun­dance of tourism resources, but with no inten­sive coach­ing for the busi­ness actors and users in each tourism site, the reg­u­la­tion will not be ade­quate­ly applied. Many regions and coun­tries have claimed to be the cen­ter of halal tourism (with more than one tourism site), but some only place the halal term as a label to attract more local and for­eign tourists. Almost none of the local gov­ern­ment poli­cies have includ­ed train­ing on the impor­tance of sharia com­pli­ance for the soci­ety that has adopt­ed halal tourism. The exam­ples of sharia com­pli­ance imple­men­ta­tion on the halal tourism des­ti­na­tion are the orga­ni­za­tion man­age­ment, sup­port­ing facil­i­ties and infra­struc­tures, the pro­vid­ed prod­uct, the prod­uct on sale, and so forth. 

Recent­ly, the Indone­sian gov­ern­ment has insti­tut­ed Law No. 33, the Year 2014, on the halal prod­uct guar­an­tee. The law describes the halal prod­uct as the prod­uct that has been declared halal, fol­low­ing the sharia. It even sug­gests all prod­ucts have this halal cer­ti­fi­ca­tion. Some uni­ver­si­ties are also advised to have the Insti­tu­tion of Halal Cer­ti­fi­ca­tion. This insti­tu­tion is expect­ed to facil­i­tate the audit of a prod­uct to attain the halal cer­ti­fi­ca­tion [1]. Indone­si­a’s Mus­lim major­i­ty soci­ety has been the bench­mark for the for­mal­ly legit­i­mat­ed halal cer­ti­fi­ca­tion on prod­uct and non-prod­uct. The enact­ment of reg­u­la­tion will not pro­duce sig­nif­i­cant results with no soci­ety’s com­pli­ance and deter­mi­na­tion to imple­ment the sharia consistently.

Halal cer­ti­fi­ca­tion is not a mere label or sym­bol that increas­es sales per­for­mance to gen­er­ate more prof­it. It instead acts as the halal guar­an­tee (the absence of the ele­ments pro­hib­it­ed by the sharia or reli­gion). As for the Mus­lims, sharia com­pli­ance becomes an oblig­a­tion. Soci­ety demands that the halal label does not only sig­ni­fy the com­mer­cial­iza­tion gain that aims to attain prof­it, but it should indi­cate sharia com­pli­ance.  Thus, the com­mit­ment to fol­low Islam­ic teach­ing can be the fac­tor that main­tains soci­ety’s faith toward halal labels and cer­ti­fi­ca­tion. Besides the sharia com­pli­ance adop­tion in the halal guar­an­tee sys­tem, the acces­si­ble bureau­cra­cy is also required in fil­ing halal cer­ti­fi­ca­tion. This halal cer­ti­fi­ca­tion sys­tem should also pre­pare inten­sive edu­ca­tion and train­ing to main­tain the com­mit­ment and con­sis­ten­cy toward sharia com­pli­ance. Inten­sive train­ing and edu­ca­tion should also involve reg­u­la­tion based on Islam­ic teach­ing that sub­stan­tial­ly guides peo­ple. It also aids the gov­ern­ment in car­ry­ing out Law No. 33, the Year 2014 on the halal prod­uct guar­an­tee. Soci­ety’s neces­si­ty on the halal guar­an­tee is not only lim­it­ed to the food and bev­er­age prod­uct but also to the ser­vices and their man­age­ment sys­tem. As the con­cept of halal tourism, soci­ety demands the prop­er halal sub­stan­tial.  There­fore, the sharia com­pli­ance reg­u­la­tion that oblig­ates peo­ple to attend for­mal or non-for­mal inten­sive train­ing and edu­ca­tion is need­ed as an ele­ment to devel­op halal tourism destinations.

Sharia Compliance

Ety­mo­log­i­cal­ly, the word sharia is adopt­ed from the term syara’a (ش ر ع), which means an object that is wide­ly open. Then, the word sharia, that is meant the source of drink­ing water formed. The Ara­bic, lat­er, con­notes the term with a straight line to pur­sue [2]. Ter­mi­no­log­i­cal­ly, Muham­mad Ali al-Sayis trans­lates sharia as the straight direc­tion. It was then expand­ed into ‘the law that rules human behav­ior from the detailed pos­tu­lates.’ [3]. Syekh Mah­mud Syal­tut defines sharia as the laws and reg­u­la­tions pre­scribed by Allah for His devo­tees. From those def­i­n­i­tions, sharia can be defined as the pri­ma­ry and sub­sidiary laws on human behav­iors based on Al-Qur’an and the hadiths of the Prophet [2].

The pre­dom­i­nant sources of Islam­ic teach­ing are Al-Qur’an and hadiths. With many the­o­rems relat­ed to an issue, a sci­en­tif­ic method­ol­o­gy on sharia laws has been accu­rate­ly and ade­quate­ly sum­ma­rized and explained. A mas­tery in sharia edu­ca­tion helps peo­ple pre­cise­ly com­pre­hend Al-Qur’an and As-Sun­nah, as taught by Muham­mad SAW. Con­verse­ly, with­out a prop­er sharia com­pre­hen­sion, Al-Qur’an and Sun­nah can be per­vert­ed and uti­lized in the wrong way. Thus, sharia is the key to under­stand Al-Qur’an and Sun­nah in a prop­er, sci­en­tif­ic, and Saheeh method­ol­o­gy. Every Mus­lim should bet­ter under­stand sharia, com­pared to aqee­da, morals, and oth­er fields. Sharia and fiqh are placed in the most robust area in Islam­ic teach­ing. Even Islam­ic cler­ics are fre­quent­ly referred to as some­one with excel­lent sharia knowl­edge, not the oth­er type of knowl­edge. Thus, sharia intel­li­gence is essen­tial to be com­pre­hend­ed. It is com­mon for a Mus­lim to have no exper­tise in Ara­bic, hadith, inter­pre­ta­tion, usul al-fiqh, and so forth. How­ev­er, Mus­lims should com­pre­hend sharia knowl­edge, espe­cial­ly the fiqh, even if only in a lim­it­ed por­tion since with no fiqh com­pre­hen­sion, Mus­lims will not per­form prop­er wor­ship. They are not oblig­at­ed to under­stand sharia edu­ca­tion per­fect­ly, but they are required to com­pre­hend the pri­ma­ry part, such as the parts relat­ed to pray­ing, mar­riage, taharah, and so forth [4].

In addi­tion, com­pli­ance means fol­low­ing a par­tic­u­lar stan­dard, spec­i­fi­ca­tion, or law that has been dis­tinct­ly reg­u­lat­ed by an autho­rized insti­tu­tion or orga­ni­za­tion. The scope of reg­u­la­tion can be nation­al or inter­na­tion­al, such as inter­na­tion­al stan­dards ruled by ISO or oth­er nation­al laws. Com­pli­ance rep­re­sents social effects from a direct or indi­rect request from oth­er peo­ple. It refers to some­one’s will­ing­ness lev­el to receive or reject the inquiry from oth­er peo­ple. One of the psy­cho­log­i­cal con­structs mas­sive­ly stud­ies it in the social psy­chol­o­gy field, specif­i­cal­ly in proso­cial behav­ior. Robert C. Cial­di­ni is the fig­ure who has com­plet­ed a series of research through direct obser­va­tion in this field [5]. In con­clu­sion, sharia com­pli­ance can be defined as obe­di­ence toward sharia that is explained in Al-Qur’an and hadiths. Mus­lims are respon­si­ble for con­sis­tent­ly com­ply­ing with sharia since it becomes their need to per­form wor­ship based on their aqee­da. Sharia com­pli­ance sym­bol­izes their sub­mis­sion and res­ig­na­tion to Allah, as their pledge to their faith as the wor­shiper of Allah.

The com­pli­ance toward an insti­tu­tion or sys­tem can be mea­sured through legit­i­ma­cy the­o­ry. The the­o­ry rep­re­sents a sit­u­a­tion where the insti­tu­tion’s strat­e­gy is lin­ear with the applied sys­tem so that the insti­tu­tion has man­aged to run its approach fol­low­ing the valid norm and rule. The imple­ment­ed norm or val­ue in an insti­tu­tion sig­nif­i­cant­ly affects the lev­el of its users’ com­pli­ance to apply that norm or val­ue. An enti­ty’s behav­ior is always assumed to rep­re­sent his or her will­ing­ness, clas­si­fied as prop­er, and fol­low the imple­ment­ed stan­dards. Soci­ety legit­i­ma­cy to an insti­tu­tion is an essen­tial strate­gic fac­tor for the insti­tu­tion’s devel­op­ment in the future. In improv­ing sharia com­pli­ance, some efforts are required. First, pro­tec­tive, through ensur­ing con­for­mi­ty toward reg­u­la­tion, rules, and stan­dards adopt­ed from analy­sis in the halal cer­ti­fi­ca­tion sys­tem and require­ments, and dur­ing the super­vi­sion and inspec­tion.  Sec­ond, con­struc­tive, by main­tain­ing the fru­gal­i­ty of sources and max­i­mum results effi­cien­cy using objec­tive infor­ma­tion and pro­duc­tive sug­ges­tion dur­ing the review on every man­age­ment lev­el.  Third, con­sul­ta­tive, by pro­vid­ing a use­ful rec­om­men­da­tion for all man­age­ment staff as the pol­i­cy per­fec­tion to obtain the orga­ni­za­tion pur­pose. It is also com­plet­ed to pre­vent all pos­si­ble risks and dis­tor­tion while also increase the effi­ca­cy of resource usage [6].

Tourism in Sharia (Al-Qur’an and Hadiths)

Islam is a reli­gion that com­pris­es all human liv­ing aspects, includ­ing aqee­da (the­ol­o­gy), sharia (law), and morals (ethics). The sharia aspects are divid­ed into wor­ship (rit­u­al) and mua­mal­lah (socio-cul­tur­al). The mua­mal­lah are spec­i­fied into the fac­tors relat­ed to God and the ones relat­ed to oth­er human beings. Tourism can be clas­si­fied into the social com­mu­ni­ty and socio-cul­tur­al aspects (mua­malah). In Ara­bic, tourism is asso­ci­at­ed with the term rih­lah that means a jour­ney or safaraسافر and saraسار. The word safara and its deriv­a­tives have been men­tioned 12 times in al-Qur’an. Mean­while, the term sara and its deriv­a­tives have been dis­cussed 27 times in Al-Qur’an, such as in the surah of al-Qashash: 29; al-Thur: 10 (in the form of fi’il mud­hari’ and mash­dar); Yusuf: 10, 19, and 109; al-Hajj: 46; al-Rum: 9 and 42; Fathir: 44; al-Muk­min: 21 and 82; Muham­mad: 10; Ali Imran: 137; al-An’am: 11; al-Nahl: 36, al-Naml: 69; al-Ank­abut: 20; Saba‘: 18 (men­tioned in the form of fi’il amr and mash­dar); al-Kah­fi: 47; Yunus: 22; al-Ra’d: 31; al-Naba‘: 20; al-Tak­wir: 3; Tha­ha: 21; and al-Maid­ah: 96 [7].

Islam always instructs its devo­tees to trav­el or have a jour­ney and move away while doing kind­ness for the world and here­after. It is explained in the Al-Qur’an, in the form of amr (com­mand). Allah also com­mands humans to have a jour­ney that regards and observes every­thing they see in detail. It is instruct­ed in some vers­es below.

Say, O Prophet, “Trav­el through­out the land and see how He orig­i­nat­ed the cre­ation, then Allah will bring it into being one more time. Sure­ly Allah is the Most Capa­ble of every­thing (Surah al-Ank­abut: 20).  Have they not trav­eled through­out the land to see what the end of those destroyed was before them? They were far supe­ri­or in might. But there is noth­ing that can escape Allah in the heav­ens or the earth. He is cer­tain­ly All-Know­ing, Most Capa­ble (Surah al Fatir: 44).

Those two vers­es indi­cate that humans will attain addi­tion­al val­ue on the rih­lah, fol­lowed by detailed obser­va­tion (tadd­a­bur) since it reminds them of their posi­tion as Allah adher­ents in the earth. Thus, their rih­lah car­ries amuse­ment and reward from Allah. Fur­ther, Al-Qur’an also illus­trates that if humans are will­ing to look at their sur­round­ings, they will see the reg­u­la­tion applied for them in the form of the as-Sun­nah. Addi­tion­al­ly, Al-Qur’an also accen­tu­ates that a tourist des­ti­na­tion should have secu­ri­ty assur­ance and sup­port­ing infra­struc­tures for the tourists, as men­tioned by a trav­el­er named al-Qurthu­bi in com­pre­hend­ing Surah Saba’s: 18 [8].

We had also placed between them and the cities1 We show­ered with bless­ings many small towns with­in sight of one anoth­er. And We set mod­er­ate trav­el dis­tances in between, say­ing, “Trav­el between them by day and night safe­ly.” (Q.S. Saba’: 18). There­fore, sup­port­ing facil­i­ties should be pro­vid­ed, includ­ing secu­ri­ty, to assure tourists’ safe­ty and com­fort­a­bil­i­ty dur­ing their rih­lah. In rela­tion to sharia or halal tourism, Hakim, et al. [9]  argues eight stan­dard fac­tors of admin­is­tra­tion and man­age­ment of sharia tourism, namely:

  1. all pro­vid­ed ser­vices should pur­sue Islam­ic principles,
  2. the staffs and guides should adopt dis­ci­pline and respect toward Islam­ic principles,
  3. ensur­ing that all activ­i­ties do not con­tra­dict Islam­ic principles,
  4. the build­ings should reflect Islam­ic principles,
  5. the restau­rants should adhere to the inter­na­tion­al stan­dard of halal services,
  6. the trans­porta­tion ser­vice should be equipped with a prop­er secu­ri­ty system,
  7. places that facil­i­tat­ed tourists to wor­ship should be provided,
  8. and should not give access to areas that con­tra­vene Islam­ic principles.

Halal or sharia tourism are those that imple­ment sharia in their oper­a­tional man­age­ment aspects and des­ti­na­tion. In the appli­ca­tion of sharia prin­ci­ples, Mus­lims’ sharia com­pli­ance should be ensured, along with good deeds and tol­er­ance for the fol­low­ers of oth­er reli­gions [10]. The sharia tourism term is also fre­quent­ly referred to as halal tourism. How­ev­er, soci­ety has declared some opin­ions on this idea. Dur­ing the forum group dis­cus­sion (FGD), the Indone­sia coun­cil of ule­ma (MUI) strict­ly explains that sharia tourism and halal tourism are held based on Al-Qur’an and used as their fundamental[11]. How­ev­er, the actu­al real­i­ty cre­ates dif­fer­ent per­cep­tions from peo­ple. One of the Indone­sian fig­ures argues that even if it is car­ried out based on Al-Qur’an, halal tourism pro­vides hygien­ic and healthy infra­struc­ture, such as restau­rants and hotels, while sharia tourism com­pre­hen­sive­ly imple­ments Al-Qur’an and hadiths in all its tourism aspects. The name of sharia tourism exhibits the robust sharia prin­ci­pal appli­ca­tion, so it gives the impres­sion of being less flex­i­ble. Soci­ety has already pre­sumed that sharia and halal tourism should place Al-Qur’an and hadiths in their devel­op­ment and man­age­ment [12].

Methods

This study used a qual­i­ta­tive research method that described the poten­tial of halal and sharia tourism in Indone­sia and sought to inter­pret the data. It was select­ed to inves­ti­gate the sharia com­pli­ance relat­ed to the halal tourism estab­lish­ment. The data were col­lect­ed from some iden­ti­fi­ca­tion com­plet­ed through obser­va­tion, jour­nal arti­cles, inter­views with tourism actors, results of FGD, and oth­er ref­er­ences rel­e­vant to tourism and its man­age­ment sys­tem [13]. The study used the phe­nom­e­nol­o­gy approach, which accord­ing to Creswell, is one of the qual­i­ta­tive approach­es that observe the relat­ed par­tic­i­pant to iden­ti­fy the phe­nom­e­na occur­ring in their life. The data were col­lect­ed to be trans­lat­ed into the mean­ing con­veyed by the par­tic­i­pants. Essen­tial­ly, the phe­nom­e­na of halal tourism devel­op­ment aimed to under­stand some­one’s jour­ney in depth. Mean­while, the sharia com­pli­ance of the tourist, busi­ness actors, and tourism des­ti­na­tion man­age­ment became the bench­mark of the data col­lec­tion in this study. The obtained data were described and report­ed in this article.

Results and Discussion

Sharia Compliance in Halal Tourism Destination Development

In the last three years, the dynam­ics of tourism is affect­ed by the increase of trav­el between coun­tries and eco­nom­ic growth, pri­mar­i­ly in the Asia Pacif­ic. The num­ber of world tourists in 2014 has reached 1.110 mil­lion over­seas trips, which shows a 5% growth from the pre­vi­ous year. In that year, more than 300 mil­lion (27.1% of the total num­ber of world tourists) went to Asia, of which 96.7% went to South­east Asia. Mean­while, in 2015, the world tourist jour­ney still grew by 4.5% dur­ing the unsta­ble glob­al sit­u­a­tion. That growth is still con­sid­ered as sig­nif­i­cant. The glob­al econ­o­my start­ed to enhance in 2016 and became the dri­ving fac­tor of tourism growth. Sim­i­lar­ly, Indone­sia also record­ed 9.3 mil­lion tourists in 2014 and 10.4 mil­lion in 2015 (increased by 2.9%), while for­eign tourists reached 12 mil­lion in 2016.

Com­pared to the oth­er South­east Asia coun­tries, Indone­sia has been placed in the fourth rank of tourism coun­try below Thai­land, Malaysia, and Sin­ga­pore. If observed from the tourist nation­al­i­ty, Sin­ga­pore­an, Malaysian, and Chi­nese peo­ple become the three most sig­nif­i­cant for­eign tourist con­trib­u­tors in Indone­sia; mean­while, the top three non-Asian tourists come from Aus­tralia, Eng­land, and the Unit­ed States of Amer­i­ca [14]. With this mas­sive advance­ment in tourism, the pub­lic has paid par­tic­u­lar atten­tion to the expan­sion of the nation­al and inter­na­tion­al halal tourism des­ti­na­tions. The improve­ment of the halal tourism indus­try brings an increase in Islam­ic eco­nom­ic devel­op­ment. There­fore, soci­ety’s sharia com­pli­ance aids the imple­men­ta­tion of reg­u­la­tion and the con­cept of halal tourism in some des­ti­na­tions. The term halal in the tourism indus­try will not be per­ceived as a label or even com­mer­cial­iza­tion any­more if it is equipped with max­i­mum man­age­ment and supervision.

Sharia Compliance in Halal Tourism Management Efficacy

Sharia com­pli­ance in the halal tourism man­age­ment in each des­ti­na­tion is cru­cial since Indone­sia has an abun­dance of tourism poten­tial rang­ing from a beau­ti­ful panoram­ic view to its great ocean. Halal tourism con­cept car­ries some require­ments, such as Islam­ic orga­ni­za­tion man­age­ment, suf­fi­cient wor­ship places, sep­a­rat­ed toi­lets that ful­fill the stan­dard of sanc­ti­ty, an activ­i­ty lim­i­ta­tion among men and women, and so forth. These reg­u­la­tions result in the com­fort of domes­tic and for­eign tourists. Fur­ther­more, Al-Qur’an also explains that if humans are will­ing to pay prop­er con­sid­er­a­tion, they will notice that some require­ments are imple­ment­ed with­in their envi­ron­ment and them­selves (phys­i­cal­ly and spir­i­tu­al­ly) (as-Sun­nah). In the oth­er parts, Al-Qur’an also empha­sizes the impor­tance of secu­ri­ty assur­ance and sup­port­ing infra­struc­ture in a des­ti­na­tion. There­fore, a com­fort­able and secure atmos­phere for domes­tic and for­eign tourists is com­posed. The sharia com­pli­ance should be prac­ticed by the tourists, along with all tourism ele­ments, such as an investor, man­age­ment, staffs, and oth­er relat­ed busi­ness actors)

Indone­sia is placed in the 50th world posi­tion in the tourism com­pet­i­tive­ness aspect since its tourist num­ber con­tin­u­ous­ly increas­es. The improve­ment in the tourism sec­tor enhances the eco­nom­ic activ­i­ty and the local soci­ety’s wel­fare. The halal tourism con­cept will be max­i­mal­ly adopt­ed if sup­port­ed by sharia com­pli­ance of the com­mu­ni­ty.  That way, it will gen­er­ate sig­nif­i­cant oppor­tu­ni­ties for local and for­eign investors. It is enhanced by soci­ety’s con­sis­ten­cy and com­mit­ment in man­ag­ing the var­i­ous nat­ur­al beau­ties and poten­tial while also prac­tice the sharia pro­vi­sion as part of their worship.

Sharia Compliance in the Tourism Human Resources Activity

The Direc­tor-Gen­er­al of Tourism Mar­ket­ing will con­duct human resources train­ing, capac­i­ty build­ing, and social­iza­tion. Besides, the gov­ern­ment also gath­ers infor­ma­tion from oth­er coun­tries which have imple­ment­ed the halal tourism con­cept, such as Malaysia, while also held social­iza­tion and com­mu­ni­ca­tion with the Asso­ci­a­tion of Indone­sia Tourism Actors (ASPRI) to ensure the halal lev­el of each des­ti­na­tion. Halal tourism requires the assis­tance of facil­i­ties and ser­vices pro­vid­ed by the sur­round­ing soci­ety, local, and cen­tral gov­ern­ment that fol­low the sharia prin­ci­ples.  Thus, coach­ing and edu­ca­tion on sharia com­pli­ance are also need­ed. Many peo­ple choose halal tourism since it gives prod­ucts and ser­vices that reflect sharia val­ue. There­fore, the human resources involved in this sec­tor should com­pre­hend and has the com­mit­ment to prac­tice sharia in their activ­i­ty. The pre­vi­ous gov­ern­ment for­mu­lat­ed activ­i­ty should be car­ried out, while the human resources in the tourism busi­ness­es should be inten­sive­ly edu­cat­ed and trained.

Islam­ic teach­ing places a jour­ney or trav­el as a part of wor­ship, as the prac­tice of hadj and umrah as com­mand­ed in the fifth pil­lars of Islam. Besides, in Islam, trav­el­ing is also count­ed as knowl­edge and learn­ing sources, or invi­ta­tion to wor­ship Allah (Qur’an Surah At-Taubah:112, al-An’am: 11–12, al-Naml: 69–70). The tourism activ­i­ty demon­strates wor­ship to Allah and the sharia com­pli­ance practice.

Sharia Compliance as Tourist Attraction in society business or Small and Medium Enterprises Empowerment

With­in the Indone­sia Law No. 10, The Year 2009 reg­u­lates the tourism attrac­tion, area, trans­porta­tion ser­vice, tour, food, and bev­er­age provider, accom­mo­da­tion, enter­tain­ment, and recre­ation­al activ­i­ty, meet­ing orga­niz­er, inten­sive tour, con­fer­ence and exhi­bi­tion, tourism infor­ma­tion ser­vice, tourism con­sul­ta­tion, tour guide, and spa. The tourism devel­op­ment is car­ried out fol­low­ing the inte­gral nation­al, provin­cial, and local tourism devel­op­ment mas­ter plan. Indone­sian tourism laws also declare that tourism func­tions to ful­fill the tourists’ phys­i­cal, spir­i­tu­al, and intel­lec­tu­al needs while also increas­ing the coun­try’s rev­enue in real­iz­ing soci­ety welfare.

In the expla­na­tion of Indone­sia Law No. 10, the Year 2009 on tourism, sharia com­pli­ance is posi­tioned as an ele­ment that eas­i­ly enhances the attrac­tive­ness in the small and medi­um enter­pris­es (SMEs) field. The relat­ed busi­ness actors that prac­tice sharia com­pli­ance helps the tourist to trust their ser­vice and feel secure in pur­chas­ing the prod­uct. Thus, sharia com­pli­ance should be adopt­ed by the SMEs to ensure the improve­ment of Islam­ic cre­ative econ­o­my activ­i­ty and social well-being since it reduces unem­ploy­ment and pover­ty rate. It is all dis­em­bogued on the con­sis­ten­cy to prac­tice sharia val­ues that become the prin­ci­ple of Islam­ic aqee­da. The secu­ri­ty and con­ve­nience of the tourism des­ti­na­tion are appre­ci­at­ed by both Mus­lim and non-Mus­lim tourists since it puts sharia val­ues as rah­matal lil ‘alamin. As described by the Indone­sia Coun­cil of Ule­ma, halal tourism should pro­mote halal and safe prod­ucts con­sumed by Mus­lim tourists. How­ev­er, non-Mus­lim tourists can also pro­duce the prod­ucts. In 2014, the min­istry and Indone­sia Coun­cil of Ule­ma tried to for­mu­late the halal stan­dards, but it has not been effec­tive. Sharia com­pli­ance holds an essen­tial role to be enforced. The Indone­sia Coun­cil of Ule­ma has empha­sized that sharia tourism is part of da’wah for Mus­lims, while it becomes healthy and safe tourism for non-Mus­lim since it has passed obser­va­tion from the Indone­sia Nation­al Agency of Drugs and Food Con­trol (BPOM). The enact­ment of Law No. 33, the Year 2014 on the halal prod­uct guar­an­tee, describes that all prod­ucts should have halal cer­ti­fi­ca­tion to be more appeal­ing for the con­sumers in the tourism or SME sectors.

Conclusions

Halal tourism des­ti­na­tions can be estab­lished by max­i­mal­ly imple­ment sharia com­pli­ance. Soci­ety’s sharia com­pli­ance cre­ates sub­stan­tial oppor­tu­ni­ty and pow­er with­in halal tourism devel­op­ment. Halal tourism should always regard sharia com­pli­ance and imple­ment sharia val­ues. Indone­sia has strong and numer­ous nat­ur­al and cul­tur­al poten­tial, along with the icon­ic Mus­lim major­i­ty reli­gious tourism. These con­sid­er­able halal tourism poten­tials can be enhanced by (1) sharia com­pli­ance in the tourism des­ti­na­tion devel­op­ment; (2) sharia com­pli­ance in halal tourism man­age­ment effi­ca­cy; (3) sharia com­pli­ance in the tourism human resources activ­i­ty; (4) sharia com­pli­ance as the tourist attrac­tion in the social busi­ness or SMEs since most of the tourist in vis­it the reli­gious des­ti­na­tion in the top 50 tourism des­ti­na­tion in Indone­sia. Sharia com­pli­ance becomes one of the Mus­lim iden­ti­ties, as proven from the Islam­ic cler­ics’ role in the sci­en­tif­ic forums and stud­ies that declare the estab­lish­ment of halal tourism des­ti­na­tions car­ries sub­stan­tial oppor­tu­ni­ty to enhance soci­ety’s econ­o­my and well-being. There­fore, sharia com­pli­ance is a robust fac­tor in devel­op­ing halal tourism des­ti­na­tions in Indonesia.

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Corresponding author biography

Shofiyun Nahidhloh grad­u­at­ed from Uni­ver­si­tas Islam Negeri Sunan Ampel (for­mer­ly IAIN Sunan Ampel) Surabaya, Indone­sia in 2009. Cur­rent­ly, she is an Asso­ciate Pro­fes­sor and she also serves as a Dean of Fac­ul­ty of Islam­ic Stud­ies at Uni­ver­si­tas Trunu­joyo Madu­ra, Indone­sia. Her research inter­est is in sharia halal busi­ness law as well as tourism and the halal industry.

© 2021 by the authors. This is an open access arti­cle dis­trib­uted under the Cre­ative Com­mons Attri­bu­tion License, which per­mits unre­strict­ed use, dis­tri­b­u­tion, and repro­duc­tion in any medi­um, pro­vid­ed the orig­i­nal work is prop­er­ly cited.

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