Vol 1, No 1 (2020) 15–21

The Rela­tion­ship of Halal Food and Ibadah among Mus­lim Com­mu­ni­ty in Malaysia

Mohd Al’ikhsan Ghaz­a­li1,2, Khair­ul Zahreen Mohd Arof3, Juhazren Juhai­di2, Amin­udin Hehsan1,2, Muham­mad Fathi Yusof3 and Nasikh4

1Cen­tre of Research for Fiqh Sci­ence and Tech­nol­o­gy (CFiRST), Ibnu Sina Insti­tute for Sci­en­tif­ic and Indus­tri­al Research (ISI-SIR), Uni­ver­si­ti Teknolo­gi Malaysia, 81310 Sku­dai, Johor, Malaysia,
2Fac­ul­ty of Social Sci­ence and Human­i­ties, Uni­ver­si­ti Teknolo­gi Malaysia, 81310 Sku­dai, Johor, Malaysia
3Razak Fac­ul­ty of Tech­nol­o­gy and Infor­mat­ics, Uni­ver­si­ti Teknolo­gi Malaysia Kuala Lumpur, Jalan Sul­tan Yahya Petra, 54100 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
4Fac­ul­ty of Eco­nom­ics, Uni­ver­si­tas Negeri Malang, Jl. Semarang No.5 Sum­ber­sari Malang 65145, Indone­sia

Cor­re­spon­dence should be addressed to Mohd Al’ikhsan Ghaz­a­li; alikhsan.​kl@​utm.​my

Cite this: Nusan­tara Halal J. 2020, Vol. 1 No. 1 pp. 15–21 (Arti­cle) | Received 24 June 2020 | Revised 1 August 2020 | Accept­ed 2 August 2020 | Pub­lished 21 August 2020 | http://​dx​.doi​.org/​1​0​.​1​7​9​7​7​/​u​m​0​6​0​.​2​0​2​0​v​1​p​0​1​5​-​0​21/

Abstract

Com­mu­ni­ty has put the exclu­sive require­ments for Halal food by plan­ning the rules of man­u­fac­tur­ing prac­tice, in par­tic­u­lar known as Islam­ic Man­u­fac­tur­ing Prac­tice (IMP). Many Islam­ic schol­ars men­tioned the impor­tance of Halal food to Mus­lim behav­ior, includ­ing in the prac­tice of both Fard­hu Ain and Far­du Kifayah Ibadah. This paper aims to iden­ti­fy the rela­tion­ship of Halal food and Ibadah between the Mus­lim com­mu­ni­ty in Malaysia. Through a ques­tion­naire sur­vey and sys­tem­at­ic lit­er­a­ture review, this study designed a set of a ques­tion­naire sur­vey that has passed a reli­a­bil­i­ty test through a pilot study on 15 respon­dents with a Cron­bach Alpha val­ue 0.78. The actu­al data col­lec­tion con­sist­ed of 115 respon­dents from a ran­dom sam­ple, which focus­es only on Penin­su­lar Malaysia. The study found that the Mus­lim com­mu­ni­ty in Malaysia is ensur­ing the food intake with a Halal logo from an autho­rised body like JAKIM and Halal food has a weak pos­i­tive rela­tion­ship with Ibadah among the Mus­lim com­mu­ni­ty in Malaysia. Unfor­tu­nate­ly, some of the Mus­lim com­mu­ni­ties in Malaysia have dif­fi­cul­ties in iden­ti­fy­ing the orig­i­nal­i­ty of autho­rized Halal logo. There­fore, this paper sug­gests the autho­rized bod­ies in Halal prod­ucts to make a cam­paign in edu­cat­ing the Malaysian Mus­lim com­mu­ni­ty. 

Key­words: Halal food selec­tion, ibadah, Mus­lim com­mu­ni­ty, Islam­ic man­u­fac­tur­ing prac­tice.

Introduction

Com­mu­ni­ty has put the exclu­sive require­ments for Halal food by plan­ning the rules of man­u­fac­tur­ing prac­tice, in par­tic­u­lar known as Islam­ic Man­u­fac­tur­ing Prac­tice (IMP). Many Islam­ic schol­ars men­tioned the impor­tance of Halal food to Mus­lim behav­ior, includ­ing in the prac­tice of both Fard­hu Ain and Far­du Kifayah Ibadah. This paper aims to iden­ti­fy the rela­tion­ship of Halal food and Ibadah between the Mus­lim com­mu­ni­ty in Malaysia. Through a ques­tion­naire sur­vey and sys­tem­at­ic lit­er­a­ture review, this study designed a set of a ques­tion­naire sur­vey that has passed a reli­a­bil­i­ty test through a pilot study on 15 respon­dents with a Cron­bach Alpha val­ue 0.78. The actu­al data col­lec­tion con­sist­ed of 115 respon­dents from a ran­dom sam­ple, which focus­es only on Penin­su­lar Malaysia. The study found that the Mus­lim com­mu­ni­ty in Malaysia is ensur­ing the food intake with a Halal logo from an autho­rised body like JAKIM and Halal food has a weak pos­i­tive rela­tion­ship with Ibadah among the Mus­lim com­mu­ni­ty in Malaysia. Unfor­tu­nate­ly, some of the Mus­lim com­mu­ni­ties in Malaysia have dif­fi­cul­ties in iden­ti­fy­ing the orig­i­nal­i­ty of autho­rized Halal logo. There­fore, this paper sug­gests the autho­rized bod­ies in Halal prod­ucts to make a cam­paign in edu­cat­ing the Malaysian Mus­lim com­mu­ni­ty. 

Key­words: Halal food selec­tion, ibadah, Mus­lim com­mu­ni­ty, Islam­ic man­u­fac­tur­ing prac­tice

Introduction

In gen­er­al, Fard­hu Ain means knowl­edge revealed, and Far­du Kifayah means knowl­edge acquired [1]. Fir­daus describes that the holis­tic Islam­ic edu­ca­tion aspect is the process of find­ing fun­da­men­tal knowl­edge required to be learned and prac­ticed by every Mus­lim [2]. On the oth­er hand, it deals with the mul­ti­lat­er­al rela­tion­ship of human and their gen­er­al pub­lic, human and con­di­tion, soci­ety and con­di­tion, and com­pa­ra­ble to Allah [1,3,4] as men­tioned in the Quran verse 77 chap­ter 28 “But seek, with that which Allah has bestowed on you, the home of the Here­after, and for­get not your por­tion of law­ful enjoy­ment in this world; and be gen­er­ous as Allah has been gen­er­ous to you, and seek not mis­chief in the land. Ver­i­ly, Allah likes not the mis­chief-mak­ers” (Quran 28:77).

On the oth­er hand, the food deci­sions made by indi­vid­u­als uncov­er a boun­teous mea­sure of data about them like per­spec­tives, inter­ests, pre­sump­tions, and belief sys­tems [5]. On top of that, [6] have proved that per­son­al­i­ty has a strong rela­tion­ship with Ibadah. In these mat­ters, this paper aims to iden­ti­fy the rela­tion­ship of Halal food and Ibadah among the Mus­lim com­mu­ni­ty in Malaysia. Intu­itive­ly, the Prophet Muham­mad SAW has told that those who walk in path seek­ing knowl­edge, Allah will there­by make easy to them the path of par­adise (Hadith nar­rat­ed by Abu Hurairah). Pro­vid­ing Halal food to be con­sumed is under Fard­hu Kifayah (‘Aql and Mal), which can be defined as nur­tur­ing mind and wealth [7].

Literature Review

In gen­er­al, the oblig­a­tions of all Mus­lims are obey­ing all the com­mand of Allah, and at the same time, the believ­er must stay away from all deeds that are pro­hib­it­ed. Among the com­mands is Far­du Ain, which all Mus­lims must know the detail and do it’s fol­low­ing the instruc­tions of the Prophet Muham­mad SAW. The Far­du Ain like solah, siyam, zakah, and Quran recita­tion must be per­formed by all Mus­lims. On the oth­er hand, Mus­lims are also asked to leave all the bad deeds that are pro­hib­it­ed. Bad deeds can be cat­e­go­rized into many types, but the focus of this paper is Haram food. The lev­el of Mus­lims in the eyes of Allah depends on this oblig­a­tion, whether they achieve the lev­el of taqwa or not. As men­tioned by Sam­bas [8], Tak­wa is the high­est wis­dom attained from direct spir­i­tu­al expe­ri­ence and reveal­ing of hijab and being in the state God Con­scious­ness, an aware­ness of the exis­tence of Allah SWT.

Not all the avail­able food in the Malaysian mar­ket is Halal. Worst, accord­ing to Mohd Al’ikhsan and Siti Sal­wa [9], the integri­ty of work­ers, man­agers, and entre­pre­neurs in pro­cess­ing prod­ucts fol­low­ing the Halal stan­dard oper­a­tion is doubtable. Some of the food providers are no longer prac­tice the Halal food stan­dard oper­a­tion in the premis­es after receiv­ing Halal sta­tus from autho­rized bod­ies like Jabatan Keman­juan Islam Malaysia (JAKIM). The issue of Halal food is no longer a new con­cern, and accord­ing to Mohd Al’ikhsan and Siti Sal­wa [10], geared by the increas­ing pop­u­la­tion with sev­er­al cus­toms and reli­gions, Halal issues appear in line with the pro­gress­ing of label­ing and brand­ing in Halal prod­ucts.

Allah SWT con­tend­ed in the Quran: Sure­ly, Salah keeps one away from shame­ful and evil deeds (29, 45). This could be under­stood that there is a rela­tion­ship between deeds with the oth­er action in human life. In this study, the rela­tion­ship of Halal food and Ibadah is going to be observed. Ibadah can be defined as any type of Mus­lim activ­i­ty which is not specif­i­cal­ly focused on acts of rit­u­al only [11]. This paper focus­es on Fard­hu Ain that specif­i­cal­ly relates to (1) solah, (2) Quran recitation,(3) Zikr and selawat, (4) siyam, and (5) alms­giv­ing.

Hazrat Abu Hurayra nar­rates: The Prophet Muham­mad, please be upon him (PBUH) stat­ed the fol­low­ing:

“O peo­ple, Allah is Good and He, there­fore, accepts only that which is good. And Allah com­mand­ed the believ­ers as He com­mand­ed the Mes­sen­gers by say­ing,

“O ye mes­sen­gers! Enjoy (all) things good and pure, and work right­eous­ness: for I am well-acquaint­ed with (all) that ye do.” (23:51),

“O ye who believe! Eat of the good things that We have pro­vid­ed for you, and be grate­ful to Allah, if it is Him ye wor­ship.” (2:172). Then, he added:

“A per­son trav­els for a long time in the way of Allah, his hair disheveled and cov­ered with dust. He lifts his hand towards the sky and makes the sup­pli­ca­tion: “O Lord, O Lord!” How­ev­er, what he eats is Haram, his drink is Haram, and his clothes are Haram. How can his sup­pli­ca­tion be accept­ed since he feeds him­self with Haram?” (Mus­lim, Zakah, 19; Tir­mid­hi, Tafsir,3; Ahmad b. Han­bal, 2/​328)

A believ­er should make sure all the income received is from Halal (law­ful) resources. Oth­er­wise, the dua’a (prayer) will be reject­ed. At the end of the world before the day of the judg­ment, there will be Mus­lims who do not care about their earn, whether it is Halal or Haram. The group will eat what they desire and won’t care if the food is either Halal or Haram. Many Islam­ic schol­ars men­tioned this is due to the decreas­es in the piety. In oth­er words, if piety decreas­es, the com­mit­ment of a Mus­lim towards reli­gion is decreased. This had hap­pened at our time con­firm­ing what a mas­sage said by Prophet Muham­mad PBUH “There will come a time when a man will not care how he earns his wealth, whether it comes from Halal or Haram source” nar­rat­ed by Abu Hurairah may Allah bless­ing him. Accord­ing to al-Areefi [12] if you pon­der over the sit­u­a­tion today, you will find that many peo­ple are striv­ing in a fren­zy to acquire wealth from any­where, whether it is Halal or Haram.

Methodology

This study involved a sys­tem­at­ic lit­er­a­ture review and a ques­tion­naire sur­vey in the data col­lec­tion. The sys­tem­at­ic lit­er­a­ture review acts as the sec­ondary data for this study that iden­ti­fies, choos­es, and crit­i­cal­ly apprais­es pre­vi­ous research [13] over mul­ti­ple data­bas­es and grey lit­er­a­ture that can be repli­cat­ed and repro­duced by oth­er researchers on the rela­tion­ship of Halal food and Ibadah. On the oth­er hand, a ques­tion­naire sur­vey was used as pri­ma­ry data, where the data col­lect­ed from the sys­tem­at­ic lit­er­a­ture review were used a set of the ques­tion­naire sur­vey that should pass in the pilot study with min­i­mum Cron­bach’s alpha val­ue 0.7 (specif­i­cal­ly 0.78 with 15 respon­dents) as rec­om­mend­ed by Nun­nal­ly [14] and Arof et. al [15]. The ques­tion­naire sur­vey was then dis­trib­uted to 115 ran­dom sam­plings respon­dents in penin­su­lar Malaysia. The respon­dents con­sist­ed of 75.44 per­cent male (86 respon­dents) and 24.56 per­cent female (28 respon­dents). 60.87 per­cent (70 respon­dents) of the respon­dents in the age range of 41 to 60 years old. The remain­ing 28. 70 per­cent (33 respon­dents), 8.70 per­cent (10 respon­dents), and 1.74 per­cent (2 respon­dents) are range between 21 to 40 years old, above 61 years old, and below 20 years old, respec­tive­ly.

The Rel­a­tive Impor­tance Index for each un indi­ca­tor under the selec­tion of Halal food vari­ables is cal­cu­lat­ed to exam­ine the impor­tance lev­el and rank­ing. By iden­ti­fy­ing the impor­tance lev­el (RII) and rank for each sub-indi­ca­tor, the aware­ness of the respon­dents can be ver­i­fied [16] towards Halal food selec­tion.  Arof et. al describes that the indi­ca­tor is con­sid­ered to be accept­ed and impor­tant if the RII val­ue is more than 70.00 [17]. The rela­tion­ship between these two vari­ables, selec­tion of Halal food and Ibadah, was test­ed by using Pear­son cor­re­la­tion test that can be sim­pli­fied into neg­li­gi­ble, weak, mod­er­ate, strong, and very strong rela­tion­ships, as shown in Table 1. On the oth­er hand, results also dis­cussed the type of rela­tion­ship explained by Mon­dal [18] and Bruce [19], as shown in Table 2. “0” mag­ni­tude of Cor­re­la­tion Coef­fi­cient shows no cor­re­la­tion, “+1” indi­cates per­fect affir­ma­tive in lines rela­tion­ship as the val­ue of one vari­able increas­es and the val­ue of oth­er vari­ables also increas­es through a pre­cise lin­ear rule. Con­trar­i­ly, “-1” indi­cates a per­fect neg­a­tive direct rela­tion­ship as the val­ue of one vari­able increas­es; mean­while, the val­ue of oth­er vari­able decreas­es through an exact lin­ear rule.

Table 1. Con­ven­tion­al approach in inter­pret­ing Cor­re­la­tion Coef­fi­cient

The absolute mag­ni­tude of the Cor­re­la­tion Coef­fi­cientExpla­na­tion
0.00 – 0.10Neg­li­gi­ble rela­tion­ship
0.10 – 0.39Weak rela­tion­ship
0.49 – 0.69Mod­er­ate rela­tion­ship
0.70 – 0.89Strong rela­tion­ship
0.90 – 1.00Very strong rela­tion­ship

Source: Adopt­ed and mod­i­fied from Müller and Büt­tner [20] and Schober et. al, [21].

Table 2. Type of rela­tion­ship

The mag­ni­tude of the Cor­re­la­tion Coef­fi­cientType of Rela­tion­ship
0No rela­tion­ship
+1A per­fect pos­i­tive lin­ear rela­tion­ship
-1A per­fect neg­a­tive lin­ear rela­tion­ship

Source: Adopt­ed and mod­i­fied from Mon­dal [18] and Bruce [19].

Results and Discussion

This paper exam­ined two main vari­ables, Halal food, and Ibadah with 12 sub-indi­ca­tors.  This research aims to iden­ti­fy rela­tion­ship of the first vari­able, Halal food, and the sec­onds vari­able, Ibadah. The Halal food selec­tion has five sub-indi­ca­tors name­ly; (1) HFS1= Ensur­ing the food is Halal, (2) HFS2= Ensur­ing the food with Halal logo by autho­rized bod­ies, (3) HFS3= Ensur­ing the restau­rant with Halal logo by autho­rized bod­ies, (4) HFS4= Aware on the orig­i­nal and fake logo of Halal by autho­rized bod­ies, and (5) HFS5= Not choos­ing food with­out Halal logo by autho­rized bod­ies. On the oth­er hand, Ibadah con­sists of sev­en sub-indi­ca­tors known as: (1) FAI1: Per­form­ing five dai­ly prayers, (2) FAI2: Per­form­ing five dai­ly prayers in Jamaah, (3) FAI3= fre­quent­ly per­form sun­nah Prayers, (4) FAI4= Fre­quent­ly recite Quran, (5) FAI5= Fre­quent­ly Zikr to Allah and Selawat to Prophet Muham­mad, (6) FAI6= Fre­quent­ly per­form sun­nah siyam (fast­ing), and (7) FAI7= Fre­quent­ly per­form alms­giv­ing.

This study found that the mean for both vari­ables, name­ly, Halal food and Ibadah were high lev­el with 22.60 and 28.81, respec­tive­ly [9,10]. This result indi­cates that the Mus­lim com­mu­ni­ty in Malaysia is still prac­tic­ing Ibadah and ensur­ing the food con­sumed that is Halal by autho­rized bod­ies. Based on Table 3, all the sub-indi­ca­tors have RII val­ues more than 70.00 indi­cat­ing that it is agreed and con­sid­ered impor­tant by the respon­dents [16]. The Mus­lim com­mu­ni­ty in Malaysia is pri­or­i­tiz­ing Halal foods in the selec­tion (HSF1, RII=99.31), ensur­ing that the food is cov­ered with Halal logo by autho­rized bod­ies like JAKIM (HSF2, RII= 94.78), ensur­ing the restau­rant with Halal logo by autho­rized bod­ies (HSF3, RII= 93.91) and not choos­ing food with­out Halal logo by autho­rized bod­ies (HSF5, RII=85.74). Also, the Mus­lims in Malaysia are aware of the orig­i­nal­i­ty of the Halal logo by autho­rized bod­ies (HSF4, RII=78.43). Unfor­tu­nate­ly, accord­ing to Arof et. al, [17], RII val­ue less than 80.00 is con­sid­ered not crit­i­cal. This can be con­clud­ed that Malaysian Mus­lims are mind­ful of the orig­i­nal­i­ty of the Halal logo autho­rized bod­ies, but the knowl­edge dif­fer­en­ti­at­ing orig­i­nal­i­ty should be improved.

Table 3. Rel­a­tive impor­tance index (RII) for Halal food selec­tion

NoCodeRIIRank
1HFS199.131
2HFS294.782
3HFS393.913
4HFS585.744
5HFS478.435

***Indi­ca­tors: HFS1 = Ensur­ing the food is Halal; HFS2 = Ensur­ing the food with Halal logo by autho­rized bod­ies; HFS3 = Ensur­ing the restau­rant with Halal logo by autho­rized bod­ies; HFS4 = Aware on the orig­i­nal and fake logo of Halal by autho­rized bod­ies; HFS5 = Not choos­ing food with­out Halal logo by autho­rized bod­ies.

Table 4 illus­trates the find­ing of the Pear­son cor­re­la­tion test. The mag­ni­tude of the cor­re­la­tion coef­fi­cient and the type of each vari­able is explained in detail in Table 2 and Table 3, respec­tive­ly. Based on the result, the selec­tion of Halal food in Mus­lim dai­ly life in Malaysia has a weak pos­i­tive rela­tion­ship with Ibadah as none of the vari­ables has a Pear­son Cor­re­la­tion mag­ni­tude of more than 0.70 [20,21]. Also, this study found that a weak pos­i­tive rela­tion­ship (0.35) between both Halal food and Ibadah. Although the mag­ni­tude of cor­re­la­tion Coef­fi­cient was low (0.35) but the pos­i­tive rela­tion­ship was still observed. In oth­er words, bet­ter Halal food selec­tion (self-con­trol from bad deeds) is more than Ibadah per­formed by the Mus­lims com­mu­ni­ty in Malaysia.

Table 4. Results from the Pear­son Cor­re­la­tion Test

 HFS1HFS2HFS3HFS4HFS5FAI1FAI2FAI3FAI4FAI5FAI6FAI7
HFS11.000.410.470.300.310.250.200.230.170.140.090.10
HFS20.411.000.520.320.590.250.220.260.160.110.240.15
HFS30.470.521.000.360.480.230.190.270.170.050.110.22
HFS40.300.320.361.000.370.100.180.260.010.140.320.20
HFS50.310.590.480.371.000.250.190.230.090.140.220.17
FAI10.250.250.230.100.251.000.250.270.320.160.110.09
FAI20.200.220.190.180.190.251.000.610.450.360.250.27
FAI30.230.260.270.260.230.270.611.000.480.600.560.38
FAI40.170.160.170.010.090.320.450.481.000.510.360.23
FAI50.140.110.050.140.140.160.360.600.511.000.450.34
FAI60.090.240.110.320.220.110.250.560.360.451.000.26
FAI70.100.150.220.200.170.090.270.380.230.340.261.00

***Indi­ca­tors: HFS1 = Ensur­ing the food is Halal; HFS2 =  Ensur­ing the food with Halal logo by autho­rized bod­ies; HFS3 = Ensur­ing the restau­rant with Halal logo by autho­rized bod­ies; HFS4 = Aware on the orig­i­nal and fake logo of Halal by autho­rized bod­ies; HFS5 = Not choos­ing food with­out Halal logo by autho­rized bod­ies; FAI1: Per­form­ing five dai­ly prayers; (2) FAI2: Per­form­ing five dai­ly prayers in Jamaah; FAI3 = Fre­quent­ly per­form sun­nah Prayers; FAI4 = Fre­quent­ly recite Quran; FAI5 = Fre­quent­ly Zikr to Allah and Selawat to Prophet Muham­mad; FAI6 = Fre­quent­ly per­form sun­nah siyam (fast­ing); and FAI7= Fre­quent­ly per­form alms­giv­ing.

Conclusions

This study found that Halal food selec­tion has a weak pos­i­tive rela­tion­ship with Ibadah among the Mus­lim com­mu­ni­ty in Malaysia. It also dis­cov­ers that Mus­lims in Malaysia choose Halal food and this com­mu­ni­ty even ensures that the food has a logo from the autho­rized body like JAKIM. Unfor­tu­nate­ly, some of the Mus­lim com­mu­ni­ties in Malaysia have dif­fi­cul­ties in dif­fer­en­ti­at­ing the orig­i­nal­i­ty of the autho­rized Halal logo. There­fore, this paper sug­gests the autho­rized bod­ies for Halal prod­ucts to make a cam­paign in edu­cat­ing the Malaysian Mus­lim com­mu­ni­ty on this mat­ter. On top of that, state Islam­ic depart­ments through an Islam­ic reli­gious cen­ter, school, high­er edu­ca­tion, and mass media should use sup­port for this cam­paign.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors pro­nounce no con­flict of inter­est con­cern­ing the pub­li­ca­tion of this paper.

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to express their gen­uine grat­i­tude to the Min­istry of Edu­ca­tion Malaysia, Uni­ver­si­ti Teknolo­gi Malaysia (UTM) and the Research Man­age­ment Cen­tre (RMC) of UTM for pro­vid­ing the finan­cial sup­port for this paper to be pub­lished. This study is financed by the UTMER Grant under the cost cen­tre PY/​2019/​01412 and Q.K130000.2653.18J53.


Corresponding author biography

Mohd Al’Ikhsan Ghaz­a­li is a senior lec­ture at Cen­tre of Research for Fiqh Sci­ence & Tech­nol­o­gy (CFiRST), Ibnu Sina Insti­tute for Sci­en­tif­ic and Indus­tri­al Research, Uni­ver­si­ti Teknolo­gi Malaysia (UTM). He received his Ph.D. degree from Uni­ver­si­ti Kebangsaan Malaysia  (UKM) in 2010. His spe­cial­ty is in hadith and Islam­ic stud­ies.


© 2020 by the authors. This is an open access arti­cle dis­trib­uted under the Cre­ative Com­mons Attri­bu­tion License, which per­mits unre­strict­ed use, dis­tri­b­u­tion, and repro­duc­tion in any medi­um, pro­vid­ed the orig­i­nal work is prop­er­ly cit­ed.

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